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Lusser M.,European Commission | Parisi C.,European Commission | Plan D.,Institute for Health and Consumer Protection | Rodriguez-Cerezo E.,European Commission
Nature Biotechnology | Year: 2012

The first crops obtained through new plant breeding techniques are close to commercialization. Regulatory issues will determine the adoption of the techniques by breeders. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Ceccone G.,Institute for Health and Consumer Protection
Materials Science and Engineering B: Solid-State Materials for Advanced Technology | Year: 2010

Porous silicon-based particles (PSps) with tailored physical and biological properties have recently attracted great attention given their biomedical potential. Within this context, the objective of the present work is to optimize the experimental parameters for the formation of biofunctional mesoporous PSps. Their functionality has been studied on the one hand by analyzing the fluorescence characteristics, such as tunable narrow band emission and fluorescence aging for PSps with different molecular capping. With regard to the biofunctional characteristics, two different molecular end-capping processes have been assayed: antifouling polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polar binding amino silanes (APTS), which were evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Both PEG and APTS binding to the particles could be confirmed from the analysis of Si 2p and C 1s XPS core level spectra. The finding that these PSp-molecule conjugates allow the reduction of fluorescence degradation with time in solution is of interest for the development of cellular or tissue markers. From the morphological point of view, PEG termination is of special interest allowing the PSps after an ultrasonic treatment to get spherical shapes in the micron scale. The functionality as solid state dyes is preliminarily evaluated by direct fluorescence imaging. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Tomasi G.,Institute for Health and Consumer Protection | Tomasi G.,Copenhagen University | Savorani F.,Copenhagen University | Engelsen S.B.,Copenhagen University
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2011

The Interval Correlation Optimised Shifting algorithm (icoshift) has recently been introduced for the alignment of nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The method is based on an insertion/deletion model to shift intervals of spectra/chromatograms and relies on an efficient Fast Fourier Transform based computation core that allows the alignment of large data sets in a few seconds on a standard personal computer. The potential of this programme for the alignment of chromatographic data is outlined with focus on the model used for the correction function. The efficacy of the algorithm is demonstrated on a chromatographic data set with 45 chromatograms of 64,000 data points. Computation time is significantly reduced compared to the Correlation Optimised Warping (COW) algorithm, which is widely used for the alignment of chromatographic signals. Moreover, icoshift proved to perform better than COW in terms of quality of the alignment (viz. of simplicity and peak factor), but without the need for computationally expensive optimisations of the warping meta-parameters required by COW. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to show how a significant reduction on data complexity was achieved, improving the ability to highlight chemical differences amongst the samples. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Pan J.-F.,Ocean University of China | Pan J.-F.,University of Nantes | Buffet P.-E.,University of Nantes | Poirier L.,University of Nantes | And 10 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2012

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have important technological applications resulting in an increased potential for release to the environment, and a greater possibility of toxicological effects. The marine bivalve Scrobicularia plana was exposed to AuNPs of size 5, 15 and 40 nm during a 16 d laboratory exposure at 100 μg Au L -1. After exposure to AuNPs forming aggregates (>700 nm), the clams accumulated Au in their soft tissues. Biochemical (biomarkers) and behavioral (burrowing and feeding) responses were investigated. Au NPs were responsible of metallothionein induction (5, 40 nm), increased activities of catalase (15, 40 nm) and superoxide dismutase (40 nm) and of glutathione S-transferase by the three sizes of AuNPs indicating defense against oxidative stress. Exposure to AuNPs impaired burrowing behavior. However, it must be underlined that these effects were observed at a dose much higher than expected in the environment. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Aschberger K.,Institute for Health and Consumer Protection | Christensen F.M.,Institute for Health and Consumer Protection
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2011

Current Technical Guidance Documents for preparing risk assessments, like the guidance for the implementation of REACH, have limited focus on chemical substances in the particulate form and generally do not focus on substances in the nanoform. Within the ENRHES project a comprehensive and critical scientific review of publicly available health and safety information on four types of nanoparticles was performed. Based on the identified exposure and hazard data, basic human health risk assessment appraisals were carried out for fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, nano-silver and nano-titanium dioxide. These risk assessment appraisals followed the structure of a regulatory risk assessment and if possible and relevant, it was attempted to derive indicative human no-effect levels from key studies by applying assessment factors as suggested in the technical guidance document for REACH. These assessment factors address differences and uncertainty related to exposure features between test animals and humans (time, respiratory volume), other interspecies and intraspecies differences and factors for extrapolation to chronic duration. If required, the severity of effects and the quality of the database can be addressed by additional factors. Recently other procedures for deriving human no-effect levels have been published and these are compared to the ENRHES basic risk assessment appraisals. The main differences were observed in relation to evaluating the differences in animal and human exposure situations and interspecies differences, and in applying assessment factors for intraspecies differences for local effects. The applicability of the REACH guidance for nanomaterials is currently being investigated for possible adaptations, considering the specific behaviour and mode of action of nanomaterials. Source

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