Institute for Global Environmental Strategies IGES

Hayama, Japan

Institute for Global Environmental Strategies IGES

Hayama, Japan
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Kuramochi T.,NewClimate Institute | Wakiyama T.,Institute for Global Environmental Strategies IGES | Kuriyama A.,Institute for Global Environmental Strategies IGES
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016

This study conducted a comparative assessment and a meta-analysis of 48 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction scenarios based on bottom-up energy system analyses for 2030 reported in seven studies published between 2011 and 2015 to obtain insights into the ambition level of Japan's official mitigation target for 2030. First, the scenarios were categorised into four mitigation effort levels and assessed the GHG emissions range (excluding land use, land use change and forestry: LULUCF) as well as key underlying energy-related indicators for each effort level category. Second, a multiple regression equation was derived and applied to project GHG emissions with selected energy-related explanatory variables. Using the derived regression equation, we calculated the levels of low-carbon energy supply and end-use energy savings required to achieve different levels of GHG mitigation.In the first analysis, GHG emissions levels ranged between 16% and 39% below 1990 levels for scenarios that are categorised to have the highest level of mitigation efforts including those consistent with the 2. °C target, with the nuclear power share ranging at 0-29%. The second analysis indicated that regardless of the future nuclear share, GHG emissions reductions of more than 25% from 1990 levels may be considered a minimum effort required in the global efforts towards the 2. °C target. In this view, Japan's official 2030 target (15% below 1990 levels excluding LULUCF) is suggested to be insufficient, especially in light of the UNFCCC Paris Agreement. Strengthened pre-2020 targets and efforts to reduce energy end-use are essential to achieve such mitigation targets. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Liu X.,Institute for Global Environmental Strategies IGES | Wang C.,Tsinghua University | Zhang W.,Tsinghua University | Suk S.,Institute for Global Environmental Strategies IGES | Sudo K.,Institute for Global Environmental Strategies IGES
Energy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2013

This paper measures the company's awareness and acceptability of market-based instruments (MBIs) for energy saving, and identifies their relationships with pre-classified determinants. The data were collected from 170 respondents mainly from iron & steel, cement and chemical sectors in China. The surveyed companies indicate moderate awareness but good acceptability of MBIs in overall. In contrast to the regulative polices, MBIs and voluntary approaches are more appreciated by the samples. There exist significant and positive relationships between a company's size and its awareness and acceptability of MBIs. This analysis suggests that a company's policy acceptability would be largely determined by the company's perceived policy influences on its comparative competition. The companies would make internal efforts to offset energy cost increases due to the possible introduction of economic pressure policies while being reluctant to simply transfer the policy burden to their clients. Empirical evidences on the conditions for the success of MBIs from this study are meaningful for supporting the future progress of industrial energy saving policies in China. © 2012 International Energy Initiative.


Liu X.,Institute for Global Environmental Strategies IGES | Ishikawa M.,Kobe University | Wang C.,Tsinghua University | Dong Y.,Kobe University | Liu W.,Tsinghua University
Energy Policy | Year: 2010

This paper examines CO2 emissions embodied in Japan-China trade. Besides directly quantifying the flow of CO2 emissions between the two countries by using a traditional input-output (IO) model, this study also estimates the effect of bilateral trade to CO2 emissions by scenario analysis. The time series of quantifications indicate that CO2 emissions embodied in exported goods from Japan to China increased overall from 1990 to 2000. The exported CO2 emissions from China to Japan greatly increased in the first half of the 1990s. However, by 2000, the amount of emissions had reduced from 1995 levels. Regardless, there was a net export of CO2 emissions from China to Japan during 1990-2000. The scenario comparison shows that the bilateral trade has helped the reduction of CO2 emissions. On average, the Chinese economy was confirmed to be much more carbon-intensive than Japan. The regression analysis shows a significant but not perfect correlation between the carbon intensities at the sector level of the two countries. In terms of CO2 emission reduction opportunities, most sectors of Chinese industry could benefit from learning Japanese technologies that produce lower carbon intensities. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.


Memon M.A.,Institute for Global Environmental Strategies IGES | Matsuoka S.,Hiroshima University
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies | Year: 2014

In developing countries contingent valuation (CV) has become an important tool for estimating willingness to pay (WTP). So far, however, the CV studies usually have not assessed the validity of the WTP estimates mainly due to ambiguities in the criteria for scope sensitivity analysis. In this article we clarify the criteria from theoretical and empirical aspects. The main debate on scope sensitivity analysis targets the proportionality theory: One group supports strong proportionality, and the other group supports weak proportionality. We highlight the shortcomings of strong proportionality and support weak proportionality. We set up the criteria for statistical significance and plausible responsiveness between the WTP and its explanatory variables. We conducted scope sensitivity of our case study from rural Pakistan to show its applicability in developing countries and to test the validity of our WTP estimates. Statistical analysis, based on the maintained hypothesis, reveals that the magnitude of the benefits and per capita income are significant variables that influence the WTP. The Kruskall-Wallis test reconfirmed the significance of the size of the benefits. Plausible responsiveness is evident from the influence of the household characteristics over the WTP. Finally, we concluded that CV can provide valid results in developing countries if the survey is conducted according to the mainstream guidelines. Further empirical testing is required to support the criterion of plausible responsiveness. © 2002, Springer Japan.


Liu X.,Institute for Global Environmental Strategies IGES | Yang J.,Tongji University | Qu S.,Tongji University | Wang L.,Tongji University | And 2 more authors.
Business Strategy and the Environment | Year: 2012

This paper explores the green supply chain management (GSCM) of companies based in the Yangtze River Delta, China. The companies' overall GSCM practice level (L GSCM) is measured by using the data from 165 valid respondents in a questionnaire survey conducted during April and May 2009. The relationships between L GSCM and the classified determinant factors are analyzed. It is indicated that Chinese companies are still at a preliminary stage of GSCM practices. Their environmental management in cooperation with external members of the supply chain is very marginal. A company's L GSCM is significantly and positively associated with the external pressures from regulatory, domestic clients and business competitors. As an internal factor, a company's learning capacity greatly determines L GSCM. We also confirm that the internal factors function as intermediate variables of external pressures in influencing a company's GSCM. A company's environmental management capacities will be strongly enhanced by frequent internal training of employees to increase its involvement in GSCM practices. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.


Liu X.,Institute for Global Environmental Strategies IGES | Niu D.,Tongji University | Bao C.,Tongji University | Suk S.,Institute for Global Environmental Strategies IGES | Sudo K.,Institute for Global Environmental Strategies IGES
Applied Energy | Year: 2013

This paper estimates the affordability of increased energy costs for Chinese companies due to the possible introduction of carbon pricing policies. The data were collected from 121 valid respondents in Taicang, China, using a multiple-bounded discrete choice (MBDC) format. Estimations indicate that a mean of 8.5% in energy cost increase would be acceptable for the surveyed companies on the whole. Companies from chemical and dyeing industries expressed a slightly higher affordability, with the mean of acceptable energy cost increase being 9.8% and 9.4% respectively. Econometric analysis identified two determinants of affordability for companies. One is the current energy price level, having a significant but negative relationship with affordability. The other is the energy management strategies of companies, significantly and positively associated with affordability. Calculations indicate that the mean of affordable energy cost increases for companies roughly equals a carbon price of 60 CNY/t-CO2 (about 9 USD/t-CO2). This result may be used as a referendum during the development of carbon tax policy and the establishment of a domestic carbon emissions trading scheme in China from the perspective of individual companies. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Bhattacharya A.,Institute for Global Environmental Strategies IGES | Kojima S.,Institute for Global Environmental Strategies
Energy Policy | Year: 2012

The conventional pricing mechanism used for electricity systematically hides huge investment risks which are embedded in the overall cost of production. Although consumers are often unaware of these risks, they present a large financial burden on the economy. This study applies the portfolio optimization concepts from the field of finance to demonstrate the scope of greater utilization of renewable energies (RE) while reducing the embedded investment risk in the conventional electricity sector and its related financial burden. This study demonstrates that RE investment can compensate for the risks associated with the total input costs; such costs being external volatilities of fossil fuel prices, capital costs, operating and maintenance costs and the carbon costs. By means of example, this case study shows that Japan could in theory obtain up to 9% of its electricity supply from green sources, as compared to the present 1.37%, based on the utilization of a portfolio risk-analysis evaluation. Explicit comparison of the monetary values of the investment risks of conventional and renewable energy sources shows that renewable energies have high market competitiveness. The study concludes with a recommendation that, as a business objective, investors would benefit by focusing on electricity supply portfolio risk minimization instead of cost. This could also inherently increase the supply of renewable energy in the market. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Kuramochi T.,Institute for Global Environmental Strategies IGES
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

In 2009, Japan pledged to reduce its GHG emissions by 25% from 1990 levels by 2020 ("Copenhagen Pledge"). The achievement of the target depended largely on a large expansion of nuclear power. However, this ambitious plan became unfeasible after the Fukushima nuclear disaster of March 2011. This paper conducted a comprehensive review of Japan's recent energy and climate policy developments since 2009 and particularly after March 2011 to assess where Japan stands today with regard to the achievement of the long-term global 2 °C goal. Japan achieved its mitigation target for the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, but it was unsuccessful in reducing domestic GHG emissions in the residential and commercial sectors, and consequently relied more heavily on purchased Kyoto units. With regard to the revised 2020 mitigation target ("Warsaw Target"), when expected emissions reductions through nuclear power is factored out, domestic mitigation under the Warsaw Target was found to be only marginally more ambitious than the target that preceded the Copenhagen Pledge (9% reduction from 1990 levels). Japan cannot make secondary acquisitions of Kyoto units up to 2020 and thus, a bilateral offset scheme (JCM) could become an important credit source. However, its development regarding the additionality of the emissions reductions needs to be tracked carefully. Moreover, the legal underpinning of national mitigation targets and actions was currently found to be very weak in Japan. The review of currently implemented policy measures revealed that among the three key measures considered for achieving the Copenhagen Pledge, only the renewable Feed-In-Tariff scheme was found to be relatively successful to date, but even this is currently under critical scrutiny. Recent new coal-fired power plant construction plans could jeopardize the achievement of both mid-term and long-term mitigation goals. The impact of nuclear power plant restarts on future CO2 emissions was found to be limited around 2030. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Akenji L.,Institute for Global Environmental Strategies IGES
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2014

An axiom that has shaped policy approaches to sustainable consumption has been that if more consumers understand the environmental consequences of their consumption patterns, through their market choices they would inevitably put pressure on retailers and manufacturers to move towards sustainable production. The result is the proliferation of consumption of "green" products, eco-labels, consumer awareness campaigns, etc. This paper, however, argues that the dominant focus on green consumerism as against the need for structural changes towards a broader systemic shift is unrealistic. Furthermore, promoting green consumerism at once lays responsibility on consumers to undertake the function of maintaining economic growth while simultaneously, even if contradictorily, bearing the burden to drive the system towards sustainability. Given the scope of the sustainability challenge and the urgency with which it must be addressed, this paper argues that the consumer is not the most salient agent in the production-consumption system; expecting the consumer through green consumerism to shift society towards SCP patterns is consumer scapegoatism. This paper draws on the discursive confusion over discourse and practice of sustainable consumption. It attempts to clarify the differences between green consumerism and sustainable consumption, looking at each concept's historical development, its perspective on the consumer, and the main approaches to achieving sustainability. It then introduces the Attitudes-Facilitators- Infrastructure (AFI) framework - a framework for sustainable consumption policy design that goes beyond green consumerism, and that enables wellbeing and ecological sustainability without propagating the economic-growth dogma that has a stranglehold on contemporary policy-making. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kataoka Y.,Institute for Global Environmental Strategies IGES
Environmental Policy and Governance | Year: 2011

Japanese water quality management is evolving toward the more integrated management of water resources by adapting to the changes in society, such as changes in public perceptions on water and the environment; diversification of water usage; and the state of water quality itself. Mitigation of water pollution and conservation of the watershed environment and ecosystem services have begun to be recognized as important elements of water quality management. In that sense, water quality management in Japan is now transforming from management of water quality to management of the wider water environment. Although there have been signs of integration of the quantity and quality aspects of water management, this paper concludes that opportunities to promote integrated management should be further explored in Japan and that local governments must play a key role in the promotion of integrated water resources management. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

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