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Kumar S.,TERI University | Managi S.,Institute for Global Environmental Strategies
Ecological Economics

The US Clean Air Act Amendments introduce an emissions trading system to regulate SO2 emissions. This study finds that changes in SO2 emissions prices are related to innovations induced by these amendments. We find that electricity-generating plants are able to increase electricity output and reduce emissions of SO2 and NOx from 1995 to 2007 due to the introduction of the allowance trading system. However, compared to the approximate 8% per year of exogenous technological progress, the induced effect is relatively small, and the contribution of the induced effect to overall technological progress is about 1-2%. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Kuramochi T.,Institute for Global Environmental Strategies
Journal of Cleaner Production

An up-to-date techno-economic assessment was conducted on CO2 emissions reduction potential in the Japanese iron and steel industry for 2030. The following mitigation measures were investigated: (i) maximized installation of best available technologies (BAT scenario), (ii) increased use of coke substitutes in blast furnaces, and (iii) increased use of obsolete steel scrap. For measure (iii), this study assessed the obsolete scrap use in the integrated steelmaking (BF-BOF) route, rather than increasing steel production from the electric arc furnace (EAF) route. CO2 capture and storage (CCS) was not considered due to large deployment uncertainty.The results showed that 20Mt-CO2 of emissions reductions, equivalent to 12% of the industry's total emissions in 2010, can be achieved in 2030 compared with a frozen technology scenario. More than 9Mt-CO2 reduction was attributable to the enhanced use of obsolete scrap in the BF-BOF route. Consequently, the industry's emissions reduce by about 7Mt-CO2 or 4% below 2010 levels. Almost all domestically recovered obsolete scrap can be fully consumed solely by increasing the scrap use in basic oxygen furnaces (BOF). Moreover, the increase in average copper concentration in the BF-BOF steel due to the increased obsolete scrap use was found unlikely to limit the production of high-quality steel products.In comparison with a scenario that only considered measure (i) and assuming a 15% real interest rate, CO2 mitigation cost curves for 2030 showed that the CO2 mitigation costs were below US$2010 20/t-CO2 for measure (ii) and around US$2010 110/t-CO2 for measure (iii). Compared to the marginal abatement costs calculated for 2030 to reduce Japan's GHG emissions by 20%-25% from 1990 levels (about US$2010 67-640/t-CO2) reported in the literature, all three measures may become economically viable.The increased use of obsolete scrap in the BF-BOF route can become an interesting option for Japanese steelmakers to stimulate the steel scrap market and achieve economical global CO2 emissions reductions while maintaining international competitiveness in the midterm future. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Vergragt P.,Tellus Institute | Akenji L.,Institute for Global Environmental Strategies | Dewick P.,University of Manchester
Journal of Cleaner Production

In June 2012 at the UN Conference on Sustainable Development ("Rio + 20"), the Global Research Forum on Sustainable Production and Consumption (GRF-SPaC) was launched, bringing together organizations and individuals from various regions of the world engaged in research and its applications in the transition to sustainable production and consumption (SPaC) systems. Conceptualizing and researching transitions to a sustainable production and consumption system is a very challenging task; the research field is not yet very well structured, its boundaries are still fluid; it is often not clear where research ends and social practices and policies begin. This introduction to a Journal of Cleaner Production Special Volume maps the emerging field of SPaC research and illustrates the multiple perspectives on how to analyze the present production and consumption system and how to conceptualize (systemic) change. We discuss how research over the last 20 years has revealed a lot of the mechanisms and lock-ins of unsustainable consumerist lifestyles and production patterns, and the barriers to systemic change. But many questions - trans-scientific in nature - remain unanswered. What is clear is that we need not only much more research into all the details of SPaC research arena but we also need bold thinking that addresses these trans-scientific questions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

This study estimates the effect of using carbon pricing to promote the diffusion of low carbon technologies based on data collected from 78 cement companies in China. The analysis confirms that they are familiar with major energy saving and low carbon technologies in the sector and have made efforts in energy saving, but are lagging in terms of carbon management. An average payback time of 3.3 years is confirmed as the threshold for cement companies to determine technology investment. The adoptions of target technologies in this survey are at different stages; WHR (waste heat recovery power generation) systems have been largely diffused and the effect of carbon pricing is highly marginal for further adoption. On the other hand, levying a moderate carbon price, i.e., 60 Yuan/t-CO2, may accelerate the diffusion of EMOS (energy management and optimisation systems), recently introduced in China's cement industry. This research goes some way to clarifying the diffusion of low carbon technologies and provides implications for climate countermeasures for the target sector in China. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd Source

Bhattacharya A.,Institute for Global Environmental Strategies IGES | Kojima S.,Institute for Global Environmental Strategies
Energy Policy

The conventional pricing mechanism used for electricity systematically hides huge investment risks which are embedded in the overall cost of production. Although consumers are often unaware of these risks, they present a large financial burden on the economy. This study applies the portfolio optimization concepts from the field of finance to demonstrate the scope of greater utilization of renewable energies (RE) while reducing the embedded investment risk in the conventional electricity sector and its related financial burden. This study demonstrates that RE investment can compensate for the risks associated with the total input costs; such costs being external volatilities of fossil fuel prices, capital costs, operating and maintenance costs and the carbon costs. By means of example, this case study shows that Japan could in theory obtain up to 9% of its electricity supply from green sources, as compared to the present 1.37%, based on the utilization of a portfolio risk-analysis evaluation. Explicit comparison of the monetary values of the investment risks of conventional and renewable energy sources shows that renewable energies have high market competitiveness. The study concludes with a recommendation that, as a business objective, investors would benefit by focusing on electricity supply portfolio risk minimization instead of cost. This could also inherently increase the supply of renewable energy in the market. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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