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Brand W.A.,Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry | Assonov S.S.,European Commission | Assonov S.S.,Institute for Geology and Mineralogy | Coplen T.B.,U.S. Geological Survey
Pure and Applied Chemistry | Year: 2010

Measurements of δ(13C) determined on CO2 with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) must be corrected for the amount of 17O in the CO2. For data consistency, this must be done using identical methods by different laboratories. This report aims at unifying data treatment for CO2 IRMS by proposing (i) a unified set of numerical values, and (ii) a unified correction algorithm, based on a simple, linear approximation formula. Because the oxygen of natural CO2 is derived mostly from the global water pool, it is recommended that a value of 0.528 be employed for the factor λ, which relates differences in 17O and 18 O abundances. With the currently accepted N( 13C)/N(12C) of 0.011180(28) in VPDB (Vienna Peedee belemnite) reevaluation of data yields a value of 0.000 393(1) for the oxygen isotope ratio N(17O)/N(16O) of the evolved CO2. The ratio of these quantities, a ratio of isotope ratios, is essential for the 17O abundance correction: N(17O)/N(16O)]/ [N(13C)/N(12C)] = 0.035 16(8). The equation [δ( 13C) ≈ 45δVPDB-CO2 + 2 17R/13R (45δVPDB-CO 2 - λ46δVPDB-CO2)] closely approximates δ(13C) values with less than 0.010 % deviation for normal oxygenbearing materials and no more than 0.026% in extreme cases. Other materials containing oxygen of non-mass-dependent isotope composition require a more specific data treatment. A similar linear approximation is also suggested for δ(18O). The linear approximations are easy to implement in a data spreadsheet, and also help in generating a simplified uncertainty budget. © 2010 IUPAC.


Weber M.E.,Institute for Geology and Mineralogy | Tougiannidis N.,Institute for Geology and Mineralogy | Kleineder M.,Institute for Geology and Mineralogy | Bertram N.,Institute for Geology and Mineralogy | And 4 more authors.
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2010

We investigated two lignite quarries in northern Greece for orbital and suborbital climate variability. Sections Lava and Vegora are located at the southern and northern boundaries of the Ptolemais Basin, a northwest southeast elongated intramontane basin that contains Upper Miocene to Lower Pliocene lacustrine sediments. Sediments show cyclic alterations of marl-rich (light), and coal-rich or clay-rich (dark) strata on a decimeter to meter scale. First, we established low-resolution ground-truth stratigraphy based on paleomagnetics and biostratigraphy. Accordingly, the lower 67 m and 65 m that were investigated in both sections Vegora and Lava, respectively, belong to the Upper Miocene and cover a time period of 6.85 to 6.57 and 6.46 to 5.98 Ma at sedimentation rates of roughly 14 and 22 cm/ka. In order to obtain a robust and highresolution chronology, we then tuned carbonate minima (low L* values; high magnetic susceptibility values) to insolation minima. Besides the known dominance of orbital precession and eccentricity, we detected a robust hemi-precessional cycle in most parameters, most likely indicative for monsoonal influence on climate. Moreover, the insolation-forced time series indicate a number of millennial-scale frequencies that are statistically significant with dominant periods of 1.5-8 kyr. Evolutionary spectral analysis indicates that millennial-scale climate variability documented for the Ptolemais Basin resembles the one that is preserved in ice-core records of Greenland. Most cycles show durations of several tens of thousands of years before they diminish or cease. This is surprising because the generally argued cause for Late Quaternary millennial-scale variability is associated with the presence of large ice sheets, which cannot be the case for the Upper Miocene. Possible explanations maybe a direct response to solar forcing, an influence on the formation of North Atlantic Deep Water through the outflow of high-salinity water, or an atmospheric link to the North Atlantic Oscillation. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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