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Östermalm, Sweden

Engwall K.,Institute for Futures Studies
Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research | Year: 2014

Abstract: This article discusses voluntary childlessness and reaching adulthood in Sweden, focusing on childfree women and men with intellectual disabilities (IDs). The article is based on interviews with 19 childfree individuals, four of whom had IDs. It focuses on motives for voluntary childlessness, with three types of motives being mentioned only by the interviewees with IDs; namely the difficulties of parenthood and of building relations with children, the risk of heredity and the maliciousness of children. The interviews have been analysed with relevance to power axes of gender, age and abilities, and these three motives may be seen as results of the interviewees' ascribed position as intellectually disabled and of the segregation in society between able and disabled individuals. The article also includes a discussion about how to achieve ‘adult status’ when parenthood is ruled out. Other issues in everyday life seem more important than parenthood, according to the individuals with IDs. © 2013 Nordic Network on Disability Research. Source

Bryngelson A.,Karolinska Institutet | Bacchus Hertzman J.,Karolinska Institutet | Fritzell J.,Karolinska Institutet | Fritzell J.,Institute for Futures Studies
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2011

Background: The aim of the study is to investigate whether the gender composition in workplaces is related to long-term sickness absence (LSA). We start off with Kanter's theory on ''tokenism,'' suggesting an increased risk of stress among minority groups (tokens), which, in turn, might increase the risk of ill health and LSA. Methods: The dataset consists of information obtained from the Swedish level of Living Survey (LNU) and the Swedish Establishment Survey (APU), linked to register-based data from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency. The longitudinal data is representative for the Swedish population and consists of 496 women and 566 men, aged 20-55 at baseline. Our study group consisted of employed persons in 1991 and we analyze, by means of piecewise constant intensity regressions, the first entry into LSA with a follow-up period of nine years. Results: Compared with women in gender-integrated workplaces, women's risk of LSA is most elevated at both extremely male-dominated (0-20% females) and extremely female-dominated workplaces (80-100% females), although the result among women in the most male-dominated group did not reach statistical significance at the 5% level. Men's risk seems less varied by gender composition. Conclusions: The present study suggests that the gender composition in the workplace has an impact on the risk of LSA, especially among women. Our findings lend no support for Kanter's theory on the effects of being a token. Most likely, women's and men's different status positions have an impact on the different associations found. © 2011 the Nordic Societies of Public Health. Source

Gallos L.K.,City College of New York | Rybski D.,City College of New York | Rybski D.,Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research | Liljeros F.,University of Stockholm | And 3 more authors.
Physical Review X | Year: 2012

The study of human interactions is of central importance for understanding the behavior of individuals, groups, and societies. Here, we observe the formation and evolution of networks by monitoring the addition of all new links, and we analyze quantitatively the tendencies used to create ties in these evolving online affiliation networks. We show that an accurate estimation of these probabilistic tendencies can be achieved only by following the time evolution of the network. Inferences about the reason for the existence of links using statistical analysis of network snapshots must therefore be made with great caution. Here, we start by characterizing every single link when the tie was established in the network. This information allows us to describe the probabilistic tendencies of tie formation and extract meaningful sociological conclusions. We also find significant differences in behavioral traits in the social tendencies among individuals according to their degree of activity, gender, age, popularity, and other attributes. For instance, in the particular data sets analyzed here, we find that women reciprocate connections 3 times as much as men and that this difference increases with age. Men tend to connect with the most popular people more often than women do, across all ages. On the other hand, triangular tie tendencies are similar, independent of gender, and show an increase with age. These results require further validation in other social settings. Our findings can be useful to build models of realistic social network structures and to discover the underlying laws that govern establishment of ties in evolving social networks. Source

NIEDOMYSL T. How migration motives change over migration distance: evidence on variation across socio-economic and demographic groups, Regional Studies. Migration researchers have long known that the motives for changing place of residence vary over migration distance. Typically, short-distance moves are regarded as motivated by housing considerations and longer-distance moves primarily by employment considerations. Using a large-scale survey on migration motives, this paper explores how migration motives change over migration distance. Particular attention is paid to variations across socio-economic and demographic groups. The results show that the housing-versus employment-driven migration dichotomy, over short and long distances, respectively, is still somewhat valid, though the present findings give a much more nuanced interpretation. The paper reveals considerable variation in migration motives, not only over migration distance, but also particularly in relation to migrant socio-economic and demographic characteristics. © 2011 Regional Studies Association. Source

Fridlund V.,University of Stockholm | Stenqvist K.,Gothenburg University | Nordvik M.K.,Institute for Futures Studies
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2014

Aim: The overall aim of this paper is to examine sexually active young people's behavioral expectations of condom use.Methods: We collected data at nine youth clinics and one sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic in Sweden. We included participants whom had been sexually active during the past 12 months: A total of 1022 participants between the ages of 15 and 31 were included. We analyzed the data separately, for different types of sexual practices and types of sexual partners. Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyze age and gender differences for discrepancies.Results: The behavioral expectation of condom use differed, depending on the type of sexual practice and the type of partner. For all types of sex, the overall pattern showed that the participants were most likely to use a condom with a casual unknown partner, followed by a casual known partner, regular partner and lastly, a main partner. Our results also demonstrated that there is a discrepancy between the behavioral expectation of condom use and the self-reported condom use. The lowest discrepancy was for oral sex, especially with a main partner, and the largest discrepancy was for anal sex and vaginal sex with a casual partner.Conclusions: Our results imply that the participants had a greater expectation of condom use than actually occurs, especially for casual unknown partners. There is a lack of knowledge about the risks associated with oral sex, which is evident in the results of the participants' behavioral expectations of condom use under those conditions. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health. Source

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