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Arany S.,University of Rochester | Ohtani S.,Institute for Frontier Oral Science
Forensic Science International | Year: 2011

This study describes an innovative application of a well-established method of age determination. The conventional method of aspartic acid racemization (AAR) is based on estimation of the d-l-aspartic acid ratio in slow turnover tissues, such as tooth tissue, to reflect the age of an individual. This method has been recently applied to age estimation in forensic investigations, and is also widely used for archeological dating of fossils. We suggest that the aspartic acid racemization method could be applied to a significant, although unresolved, forensic issue: that of bloodstain dating. Standard kinetic experiments were used to describe the characteristics of the racemization reaction in bloodstains, which were then employed to estimate the age of various samples. The soluble protein fraction of a bloodstain produced a stronger correlation between elapsed time and d-aspartic acid content than total amino acid fractions. According to our preliminary results, the time lapse after the creation of a bloodstain can be determined ex vivo by measuring the extent of aspartic acid racemization. Our analysis highlights the need for further study into the preservation and composition of bloodstains to assist in further development of this pioneering application. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Matsumoto G.,Kanagawa Dental College | Matsumoto G.,Foundation for Biomedical Research and Innovation | Hoshino J.,Institute for Frontier Oral Science | Kinoshita Y.,Foundation for Biomedical Research and Innovation | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Biomaterials Applications | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of combining porous poly-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid-co-ε-caprolactone (PLGC) as a barrier membrane and collagen sponge containing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) to promote bone regeneration in the canine mandible. In six beagle dogs, two lateral bone defects per side were created in the mandible. The lateral bone defects on the left side were treated with a PLGC membrane plus a collagen sponge containing bFGF. In half of these, the collagen sponge contained 50 μg of bFGF. In the other half, it contained 250 μg of bFGF. As a control, we treated the right-side bone defects in each animal with the same PLGC membrane but with a collagen sponge containing phosphate buffered saline. Computed tomography (CT) images were recorded at 3 and 6 months post-op to evaluate regeneration of the bone defects. After a healing period of 6 months, whole mandibles were removed for micro-CT and histological analyses. The post-op CT images showed that more bone had formed at all experimental sites than at control sites. At 3 months post-op, the volume of bone at defect sites covered with PLGC membrane plus 250 μg of bFGF was significantly greater than it was at defect sites covered with PLGC membrane plus 50 μg of bFGF. At 6 months post-op, however, this difference was smaller and not statistically significant. Micro-CT measurement showed that the volume of new bone regenerated at bone-defect sites, covered with PLGC membrane plus bFGF, was significantly greater than that of control sites. However, the presence or absence of bFGF in the collagen sponge did not significantly affect the bone density of new bone. These results suggest that the macroporous bioresorbable PLGC membrane plus collagen sponge containing bFGF effectively facilitates healing in GBR procedures. © 2011 The Author(s). Source


Okada Y.,Kanagawa Dental College | Hamada N.,Kanagawa Dental College | Kim Y.,Kanagawa Dental College | Takahashi Y.,Kanagawa Dental College | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Oral Biology | Year: 2010

Introduction: Periodontal disease is characterised by alveolar bone loss. Some studies have suggested the involvement of sympathetic nervous system in the deterioration of periodontal disease. Noradrenaline, released from sympathetic nerve terminals due to various stimuli, binds to specific adrenergic receptors on immune cells. Recently, we reported that restraint stress augmented the alveolar bone loss induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis infection. In this study, we investigated the effects of the β-blocker (propranolol) on alveolar bone loss induced by P. gingivalis infection to examine the involvement of sympathetic nerves in periodontal breakdown. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were treated as follows: saline injection (Group A), propranolol injection (Group B), saline injection and oral challenge with P. gingivalis (Group C), and propranolol injection and oral challenge with P. gingivalis (Group D). Horizontal alveolar bone loss was evaluated by measuring the distance between the cemento-enamel junction and the alveolar bone crest. Specimens from periodontal tissue were evaluated by staining with hematoxylin-eosin and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. Results: Blockade of β-receptors in periodontal tissue by propranolol inhibited osteoclast differentiation and prevented alveolar bone loss induced by P. gingivalis infection. Histological study revealed that the number of osteoclasts detected was proportional to the level of bone loss. Conclusions: These results indicate that the sympathetic nervous system is involved in the development of periodontitis and suggest that sympathetic signal modulation with β-blockers enables the control of alveolar bone mass metabolism. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Ohtani S.,Institute for Frontier Oral Science | Yamamoto T.,Kanagawa Dental College
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2011

Racemization method is currently considered to be one of the most accurate methods for age estimation. There are many factors that affect racemization reaction velocities. We investigated ethnic differences in the racemization reaction velocities between Japanese and Scandinavian teeth. After a heating experiment, the Arrhenius equation was used to obtain a rate constant (k). Both groups presented almost identical velocities, indicating that there was no difference in the tooth racemization reaction between the two groups. However, because 14 of the 18 Scandinavian teeth had multiple roots, it is possible that accurate racemization rates of the teeth themselves were not reflected in the results. These findings reconfirm that the type of tooth selected is extremely important when evaluating age by racemization. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Source


Kamegawa M.,Medical Simulation | Kamegawa M.,Shimadzu Corporation | Nakamura M.,Medical Simulation | Nakamura M.,Institute for Frontier Oral Science | And 3 more authors.
Dental Materials Journal | Year: 2010

Three-dimensional computer models of dental arches play a significant role in prosthetic dentistry. The microfocus X-ray CT scanner has the advantage of capturing precise 3D shapes of deep fossa, and we propose a new method of measuring the three-dimensional morphology of a dental impression directly, which will eliminate the conversion process to dental casts. Measurement precision and accuracy were evaluated using a standard gage comprised of steel balls which simulate the dental arch. Measurement accuracy, standard deviation of distance distribution of superimposed models, was determined as ±0.050 mm in comparison with a CAD model. Impressions and casts of an actual dental arch were scanned by microfocus X-ray CT and three-dimensional models were compared. The impression model had finer morphology, especially around the cervical margins of teeth. Within the limitations of the current study, direct three-dimensional impression modeling was successfully demonstrated using microfocus X-ray CT. Source

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