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Zhang D.,Institute for Frontier Materials | Wong C.S.,Institute for Frontier Materials
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A | Year: 2016

Elemental metals have been widely used to alloy metallic orthopedic implants. However, there is still insufficient research data elucidating the cell responses of osteoblastic cells to alloying elemental metals, which impedes the development of new metallic implant materials. In this study, the cellular responses of osteoblast-like cells (SaOS2) to 17 pure alloying elemental metals, that is, titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), hafnium (Hf), vanadium (V), niobium (Nb), tantalum (Ta), chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), ruthenium (Ru), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), silicon (Si), and tin (Sn) were comparatively investigated in vitro. Cellular responses including intracellular total protein synthesis and collagen content, cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity on these elemental metals were systematically assessed and compared. It was found that these elemental metals could be categorized into three groups based on the cellular functions on them. Group 1, including Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Cr, Ru, and Si, showed excellent cell proliferation and varied ALP activity for SaOS2 cells. Cells exposed to Group 2, including Mo and Sn, although initially attached and grew, did not proliferate over time. In contrast, Group 3, including V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn, showed severe cytotoxicity toward SaOS2 cells. It is vital to consider the cell responses to the elemental metals when designing a new metallic implant material and the findings of this study provide insights into the biological performance of the elemental metals. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


News Article | December 1, 2015
Site: www.rdmag.com

In hopes of limiting the disastrous environmental effects of massive oil spills, materials scientists from Drexel Univ. and Deakin Univ., in Australia, have teamed up to manufacture and test a new material, called a boron nitride nanosheet, that can absorb up to 33 times its weight in oils and organic solvents—a trait that could make it an important technology for quickly mitigating these costly accidents. The material, which literally absorbs the oil like a sponge, is the result of support from the Australian Research Council and is now ready to be tested by industry after two years of refinement in the laboratory at Deakin's Institute for Frontier Materials (IFM). Alfred Deakin Professor Ying (Ian) Chen, PhD, the lead author of a paper, recently published in Nature Communications, said the material is the most exciting advancement in oil spill remediation technology in decades. "Oil spills are a global problem and wreak havoc on our aquatic ecosystems, not to mention cost billions of dollars in damage," Chen said. "Everyone remembers the Gulf Coast disaster, but here in Australia they are a regular problem, and not just in our waters. Oil spills from trucks and other vehicles can close freeways for an entire day, again amounting to large economic losses," Chen said. The Australian Research Council supported the development of the boron nitride nanosheets, because, according to Chen, current methods of cleaning up oil spills are inefficient and unsophisticated—taking too long and causing ongoing and expensive damage. The nanosheet is made up of flakes, which are just several nanometers (one billionth of a meter) in thickness with tiny holes. This form enables the nanosheet to, in effect, increase its surface area per gram to the size of five and a half tennis courts. According to lead author, Weiwei Lei, PhD, an IFM scientist and an Australian Research Council Discovery Early Career Research Awardee, turning the powder into a sponge was a big challenge—but an essential step in the process. "In 2013 we developed the first stage of the material, but it was simply a powder. This powder had absorption capabilities, but you cannot simply throw powder onto oil—you need to be able to bind that powder into a sponge so that we can soak the oil up, and also separate it from water," Wei said. "The pores in the nanosheets provide the surface area to absorb oils and organic solvents up to 33 times its own weight." Researchers from Drexel's College of Engineering helped to study and functionalize the material, which started as boron nitride powder, commonly called "white graphite." By forming the powder in to atomically thin sheets, the material could be made into a sponge. "The mechanochemical technique developed meant it was possible to produce high-concentration stable aqueous colloidal solutions of boron nitride sheets, which could then be transformed into the ultralight porous aerogels and membranes for oil clean-up," said Vadym Mochalin, PhD, a co-author of the paper, who was a research associate professor at Drexel while working on the project, and is now an associate professor at Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology. The Drexel team used computational modeling to help understand the intimate details of how the material was formed. In the process, the team learned that the boron nitride nanosheets are flame resistant—which means they could also find applications in electrical and heat insulation. "We are delighted that support from the Australian Research Council allowed us to participate in this interesting study and we could help our IFM colleagues to model and better understand this wonderful material, " said Yury Gogotsi, PhD, Distinguished University and Trustee Chair professor in Drexel's College of Engineering, and director of the A.J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute. The nanotechnology team at Deakin's Institute for Frontier Materials has been working on boron nitride nanomaterials for two decades and has been internationally recognized for its work in the development of boron nitride nanotubes and nanosheets. This project is the next step in the IFM's continued research to discover new uses for the material. "We are so excited to have finally got to this stage after two years of trying to work out how to turn what we knew was a good material into something that could be practically used," Chen said.


News Article | December 1, 2015
Site: www.nanotech-now.com

Home > Press > Researchers from Deakin and Drexel develop super-absorbent material to soak up oil spills Abstract: In hopes of limiting the disastrous environmental effects of massive oil spills, materials scientists from Drexel University and Deakin University, in Australia, have teamed up to manufacture and test a new material, called a boron nitride nanosheet, that can absorb up to 33 times its weight in oils and organic solvents--a trait that could make it an important technology for quickly mitigating these costly accidents. The material, which literally absorbs the oil like a sponge, is the result of support from the Australian Research Council and is now ready to be tested by industry after two years of refinement in the laboratory at Deakin's Institute for Frontier Materials (IFM). Alfred Deakin Professor Ying (Ian) Chen, PhD, the lead author of a paper, recently published in Nature Communications, said the material is the most exciting advancement in oil spill remediation technology in decades. "Oil spills are a global problem and wreak havoc on our aquatic ecosystems, not to mention cost billions of dollars in damage," Chen said. "Everyone remembers the Gulf Coast disaster, but here in Australia they are a regular problem, and not just in our waters. Oil spills from trucks and other vehicles can close freeways for an entire day, again amounting to large economic losses," Chen said. The Australian Research Council supported the development of the boron nitride nanosheets, because, according to Chen, current methods of cleaning up oil spills are inefficient and unsophisticated--taking too long and causing ongoing and expensive damage. The nanosheet is made up of flakes, which are just several nanometers (one billionth of a meter) in thickness with tiny holes. This form enables the nanosheet to, in effect, increase its surface area per gram to the size of five and a half tennis courts. According to lead author, Weiwei Lei, PhD, an IFM scientist and an Australian Research Council Discovery Early Career Research Awardee, turning the powder into a sponge was a big challenge--but an essential step in the process. "In 2013 we developed the first stage of the material, but it was simply a powder. This powder had absorption capabilities, but you cannot simply throw powder onto oil - you need to be able to bind that powder into a sponge so that we can soak the oil up, and also separate it from water," Wei said. "The pores in the nanosheets provide the surface area to absorb oils and organic solvents up to 33 times its own weight." Researchers from Drexel's College of Engineering helped to study and functionalize the material, which started as boron nitride powder, commonly called "white graphite." By forming the powder in to atomically thin sheets, the material could be made into a sponge. "The mechanochemical technique developed meant it was possible to produce high-concentration stable aqueous colloidal solutions of boron nitride sheets, which could then be transformed into the ultralight porous aerogels and membranes for oil clean-up," said Vadym Mochalin, PhD, a co-author of the paper, who was a research associate professor at Drexel while working on the project, and is now an associate professor at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The Drexel team used computational modeling to help understand the intimate details of how the material was formed. In the process, the team learned that the boron nitride nanosheets are flame resistant--which means they could also find applications in electrical and heat insulation. "We are delighted that support from the Australian Research Council allowed us to participate in this interesting study and we could help our IFM colleagues to model and better understand this wonderful material, " said Yury Gogotsi, PhD, Distinguished University and Trustee Chair professor in Drexel's College of Engineering, and director of the A.J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute. The nanotechnology team at Deakin's Institute for Frontier Materials has been working on boron nitride nanomaterials for two decades and has been internationally recognized for its work in the development of boron nitride nanotubes and nanosheets. This project is the next step in the IFM's continued research to discover new uses for the material. "We are so excited to have finally got to this stage after two years of trying to work out how to turn what we knew was a good material into something that could be practically used," Chen said. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.


News Article | December 1, 2015
Site: www.cemag.us

In hopes of limiting the disastrous environmental effects of massive oil spills, Materials scientists from Drexel University and Deakin University have teamed up to manufacture and test a new material, called a boron nitride nanosheet, that can absorb up to 33 times its weight in oils and organic solvents — a trait that could make it an important technology for quickly mitigating these costly accidents. The material, which literally absorbs the oil like a sponge, is the result of support from the Australian Research Council and is now ready to be tested by industry after two years of refinement in the laboratory at Deakin’s Institute for Frontier Materials (IFM). Alfred Deakin Professor Ying (Ian) Chen, PhD, the lead author of a paper, recently published in Nature Communications, says the material is the most exciting advancement in oil spill remediation technology in decades. “Oil spills are a global problem and wreak havoc on our aquatic ecosystems, not to mention cost billions of dollars in damage,” Chen says. “Everyone remembers the Gulf Coast disaster, but here in Australia they are a regular problem, and not just in our waters. Oil spills from trucks and other vehicles can close freeways for an entire day, again amounting to large economic losses,” Chen says. The Australian Research Council supported the development of the boron nitride nanosheets, because, according to Chen, current methods of cleaning up oil spills are inefficient and unsophisticated — taking too long and causing ongoing and expensive damage. The nanosheet is made up of flakes, which are just several nanometers (one billionth of a meter) in thickness with tiny holes. This form enables the nanosheet to, in effect, increase its surface area per gram to the size of five and a half tennis courts. According to lead author, Weiwei Lei, PhD, an IFM scientist and an Australian Research Council Discovery Early Career Research Awardee, turning the powder into a sponge was a big challenge — but an essential step in the process. “In 2013 we developed the first stage of the material, but it was simply a powder. This powder had absorption capabilities, but you cannot simply throw powder onto oil — you need to be able to bind that powder into a sponge so that we can soak the oil up, and also separate it from water,” Wei says. “The pores in the nanosheets provide the surface area to absorb oils and organic solvents up to 33 times its own weight.” Researchers from Drexel’s College of Engineering helped to study and functionalize the material, which started as boron nitride powder, commonly called “white graphite.” By forming the powder in to atomically thin sheets, the material could be made into a sponge. “The mechanochemical technique developed meant it was possible to produce high-concentration stable aqueous colloidal solutions of boron nitride sheets, which could then be transformed into the ultralight porous aerogels and membranes for oil clean-up,” says Vadym Mochalin, PhD, a co-author of the paper, who was a research associate professor at Drexel while working on the project, and is now an associate professor at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The Drexel team used computational modeling to help understand the intimate details of how the material was formed. In the process, the team learned that the boron nitride nanosheets are flame resistant — which means they could also find applications in electrical and heat insulation. “We are delighted that support from the Australian Research Council allowed us to participate in this interesting study and we could help our IFM colleagues to model and better understand this wonderful material, ” says Yury Gogotsi, PhD, Distinguished University and Trustee Chair professor in Drexel’s College of Engineering, and director of the A.J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute. The nanotechnology team at Deakin’s Institute for Frontier Materials has been working on boron nitride nanomaterials for two decades and has been internationally recognized for its work in the development of boron nitride nanotubes and nanosheets. This project is the next step in the IFM’s continued research to discover new uses for the material. “We are so excited to have finally got to this stage after two years of trying to work out how to turn what we knew was a good material into something that could be practically used,” Chen says.


Howlett P.C.,Institute for Frontier Materials | Gramet S.,Institute for Frontier Materials | Lin J.,Institute for Frontier Materials | Efthimiadis J.,Institute for Frontier Materials | And 3 more authors.
Science China Chemistry | Year: 2012

This work reveals the performance of a trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide ([P 6,6,6,14][NTf 2]) ionic liquid (IL) conversion coating upon AZ91D. Such conversion coatings represent a novel avenue for chromate replacement. An optimization of coating performance was pursued by careful alloy pretreatment to generate a surface on which the coating performs best, as the AZ91 substrate is distinctly different from pure or dilute Mg alloys. The results reveal that a functional conversion coating can be achieved, retarding anodic dissolution kinetics, causing a significant decrease in corrosion rate. The coating efficacy is closely tied to the pretreatment performed, which dictates both the microstructural and electrochemical heterogeneity of the surface. The resulting coatings were found to contain Mg xF x and phosphonium cation related components, the proportions of which were dependent on the pretreatment. © Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012.


Dumee L.F.,Deakin University | Dumee L.F.,Institute for Frontier Materials | Lemoine J.-B.,Deakin University | Lemoine J.-B.,Institute for Frontier Materials | And 8 more authors.
Nanomaterials | Year: 2015

The formation of purely metallic meso-porous metal thin films by partial interface coalescence of self-assembled metal nano-particles across aqueous solutions of Pluronics triblock lyotropic liquid crystals is demonstrated for the first time. Small angle X-ray scattering was used to study the influence of the thin film composition and processing conditions on the ordered structures. The structural characteristics of the meso-structures formed demonstrated to primarily rely on the lyotropic liquid crystal properties while the nature of the metal nano-particles used as well as the their diameters were found to affect the ordered structure formation. The impact of the annealing temperature on the nano-particle coalescence and efficiency at removing the templating lyotropic liquid crystals was also analysed. It is demonstrated that the lyotropic liquid crystal is rendered slightly less thermally stable, upon mixing with metal nano-particles and that low annealing temperatures are sufficient to form purely metallic frameworks with average pore size distributions smaller than 500 nm and porosity around 45% with potential application in sensing, catalysis, nanoscale heat exchange, and molecular separation. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


News Article | November 30, 2015
Site: phys.org

The major breakthrough material, which literally absorbs the oil like a sponge, is the result of support from the Australian Research Council and is now ready to be trialled by industry after two years of refinement in the laboratory at Deakin's Institute for Frontier Materials (IFM). Alfred Deakin Professor Ying (Ian) Chen, the lead author on a paper which outlines the team's breakthrough in today's edition of Nature Communications, said the material was the most exciting advancement in oil spill clean-up technology in decades. "Oil spills are a global problem and wreak havoc on our aquatic ecosystems, not to mention cost billions of dollars in damage," Professor Chen said. "Everyone remembers the Gulf Coast disaster, but here in Australia they are a regular problem, and not just in our waters. Oil spills from trucks and other vehicles can close freeways for an entire day, again amounting to large economic losses. "But current methods of cleaning up oil spills are inefficient and unsophisticated, taking too long, causing ongoing and expensive damage, which is why the development of our technology was supported by the Australian Research Council. "We are so excited to have finally got to this stage after two years of trying to work out how to turn what we knew was a good material into something that could be practically used," Professor Chen said. "In 2013 we developed the first stage of the material, but it was simply a powder. This powder had absorption capabilities, but you cannot simply throw powder onto oil – you need to be able to bind that powder into a sponge so that we can soak the oil up, and also separate it from water." The lead author on the paper, IFM scientist Dr Weiwei Lei,) an Australian Research Council Discovery Early Career Research Awardee, said turning the powder into a sponge was a big challenge. "But we have finally done it by developing a new production technique," Dr Lei said. "The ground-breaking material is called a boron nitride nanosheet, which is made up of flakes which are just several nanometers (one billionth of a meter) in thickness with tiny holes which can increase its surface area per gram to effectively the size of 5.5 tennis courts." The research team, which included scientists from Drexel University, Philadelphia, and Missouri University of Science and Technology, started with boron nitride powder known as "white graphite" and broke it into atomically thin sheets that were used to make a sponge. "The pores in the nanosheets provide the surface area to absorb oils and organic solvents up to 33 times its own weight," Dr Lei said. Professor Yury Gogotsi from Drexel University said boron nitride nanosheets did not burn, could withstand flame, and be used in flexible and transparent electrical and heat insulation, as well as many other applications. "We are delighted that support from the Australian Research Council allowed us to participate in this interesting study and we could help our IFM colleagues to model and better understand this wonderful material, " Professor Gogotsi said. Professor Vadym Mochalin from Missouri University of Science and Technology said the mechanochemical technique developed meant it was possible to produce high-concentration stable aqueous colloidal solutions of boron nitride sheets, which could then be transformed into the ultralight porous aerogels and membranes for oil clean-up. "The use of computational modelling helped us to understand the intimate details of this novel mechanochemical exfoliation process. It is a nice illustration of the power, which combined experimental plus modelling approach offers researchers nowadays."


News Article | December 9, 2015
Site: www.materialstoday.com

In hopes of limiting the disastrous environmental effects of massive oil spills, materials scientists from Drexel University and Deakin University, both in Australia, have teamed up to manufacture and test a new highly absorbent material. Known as a boron nitride nanosheet, the material can absorb up to 33 times its weight in oils and organic solvents, potentially making it an important technology for quickly mitigating these costly accidents. The material, which literally absorbs the oil like a sponge, is the result of support from the Australian Research Council and is now ready to be tested by industry after two years of refinement in the laboratory at Deakin's Institute for Frontier Materials (IFM). According to Ying (Ian) Chen, professor of nanotechnology at Deakin University and senior author of a paper on this work in Nature Communications, the material represents the most exciting advance in oil spill remediation technology in decades. "Oil spills are a global problem and wreak havoc on our aquatic ecosystems, not to mention cost billions of dollars in damage," Chen said. "Everyone remembers the Gulf Coast disaster, but here in Australia they are a regular problem, and not just in our waters. Oil spills from trucks and other vehicles can close freeways for an entire day, again amounting to large economic losses." The Australian Research Council supported the development of the boron nitride nanosheets, because, according to Chen, current methods for cleaning up oil spills are inefficient and unsophisticated, taking too long and causing ongoing and expensive damage. The nanosheets are made up of porous flakes of boron nitride just several nanometers in thickness. This porous structure allows the nanosheet to, in effect, increase its surface area per gram to the size of five and a half tennis courts. According to lead author Weiwei Lei, an IFM scientist, turning these flakes into a spongy aerogel was a big challenge, but an essential step in the process. "In 2013 we developed the first stage of the material, but it was simply a powder," explains Lei. "This powder had absorption capabilities, but you cannot simply throw powder onto oil – you need to be able to bind that powder into a sponge so that we can soak the oil up, and also separate it from water. The pores in the nanosheets provide the surface area to absorb oils and organic solvents up to 33 times its own weight." Researchers from Drexel's College of Engineering helped to study and functionalize the flakes. By first forming the flakes into atomically thin sheets, they could then be made into an aerogel. "The mechanochemical technique developed meant it was possible to produce high-concentration stable aqueous colloidal solutions of boron nitride sheets, which could then be transformed into the ultralight porous aerogels and membranes for oil clean-up," said Vadym Mochalin, a co-author of the paper, who was a research associate professor at Drexel while working on the project and is now an associate professor at Missouri University of Science and Technology in the US. The Drexel team used computational modeling to help understand the intimate details of how the material was formed. In the process, the team learned that the boron nitride nanosheets are flame resistant, which means they could also find applications in electrical and heat insulation. "We are delighted that support from the Australian Research Council allowed us to participate in this interesting study and we could help our IFM colleagues to model and better understand this wonderful material, " said Yury Gogotsi, a professor in Drexel's College of Engineering and director of the A.J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute. The nanotechnology team at the IFM has been working on boron nitride nanomaterials for two decades and has been internationally recognized for its work in the development of boron nitride nanotubes and nanosheets. This project is the next step in the IFM's continued research to discover new uses for the material. "We are so excited to have finally got to this stage after two years of trying to work out how to turn what we knew was a good material into something that could be practically used," Chen said. This story is adapted from material from Deakin University, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier. Link to original source.

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