National Institute for Forestry

San Luis Potosí, Mexico

National Institute for Forestry

San Luis Potosí, Mexico
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Urrutia Morales J.,National Institute for Forestry | Becerra J.F.C.,National Institute for Forestry | Avila H.R.V.,National Institute of Forestry | Villagomez-Amezcua Manjarrez E.,National Institute of Forestry | Rivera Lozano M.T.,National Institute for Forestry
Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems | Year: 2013

In order to determine the extent of response to the male effect in two breed of goats, previously observed to express a similar pattern of reproductive seasonality under tropical photoperiod (22°N), 17 Nubian and 15 Alpine female goats were exposed to sexual active males at May 15th. A higher proportion of Nubian vs. Alpine does ovulated in response to the male effect (76.5 vs 33.3%; P<0.02). Two peaks of P4 at 4 and 19 day after male introduction were observed, being more evident in Nubian does. Eight Nubian does showed P4 increases >0.5 ng ml-1 within the first four days after male introduction, whilst Alpine does maintained basal P4 levels during the same period (≤0.04 ng ml-1). The higher proportion of Nubian does ovulating due to the male effect, indicate that female goats of this breed, maintained under tropical photoperiod, are more responsive than Alpine does to non-photoperiodic external stimuli, such as the presence of sexual active males.

Gonzalez-Godinez A.,National Institute for Forestry | Urrutia-Morales J.,National Institute for Forestry | Gamez-Vazquez H.G.,National Institute for Forestry
Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems | Year: 2014

This study compared the ability of breeds Dorper and Katahdin to reproduce out of season. The ewes were kept in confinement conditions and fed with a whole diet (23.4% DM, 12.7% of CP and 2.3 Mcal ME). The sheep were exposed to males of their respective breeds in March-April (217 Dorper and 72 Katahdin) and in May-June (103 Dorper and 37 Katahdin). The proportion of ewe lambed was higher (P < 0.0001) in two breeds bred in March-April (67.7 and 72.2%) than May-June (38.8 and 29.7%), but prolificacy was similar (P > 0.05) in both breeds in the two breeding periods (1.35, 1.35, 1.15 and 1.36 lambs born/ewe lambed in the March-April and May-June breeding, in the Dorper and Katahdin breeds, respectively). It is concluded that ewes of hair Dorper and Katahdin sheep are able to reproduce outside of the reproductive season. However, reproductive efficiency was increased in ewes bred at the beginning than those bred at the end of spring season.

Salgado-Miranda C.,University of Central Mexico | Loza-Rubio E.,National Institute for Forestry | Rojas-Anaya E.,National Institute for Forestry | Garcia-Espinosa G.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Expert Review of Vaccines | Year: 2013

Since 1970, aquaculture production has grown. In 2010, it had an annual average rate of 6.3% with 59.9 million tons of product and soon could exceed capture fisheries as a source of fishery products. However, the occurrence of viral diseases continues to be a significant limiting factor and its control is important for the development of this sector. In aquaculture farms, fish are reared under intensive culture conditions, and the use of viral vaccines has enabled an increase in production. Several types of vaccines and strategies of vaccination have been developed; however, this approach has not reached the expected goals in the most susceptible stage (fingerlings). Currently, there are inactivated and recombinant commercial vaccines, mainly for salmonids and cyprinids. In addition, updated genomic and proteomic technology has expedited the research and expansion of new vaccine models, such as those comprised of subunits or DNA. The objective of this review is to cover the various types of viral vaccines that have been developed and are available for bony fishes, as well as the advantages and challenges that DNA vaccines present for massive administration in a growing aquaculture, possible risks for the environment, the controversy regarding genetically modified organisms and possible acceptance by consumers. © 2013 2013 Expert Reviews Ltd.

Sanchez-Cohen I.,National Water Research Institute | Diaz-Padilla G.,National Institute for Forestry | Velasquez-Valle M.,National Water Research Institute | Slack D.C.,University of Arizona | And 2 more authors.
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture | Year: 2015

Rural inhabitants of arid lands constantly face a lack of sufficient water to fulfill their agricultural and household needs. In this situation they have to take quick and precise decisions about how to cope with the situation. Moreover, there is not readily available technical information to support their decisions regarding the course of action they should follow to handle the agro-climatic risk. In this paper a computer model (soil water balance model) is described to assess the impact on crops yields of rainfall shortages in dry lands in Mexico. The model is linked to a knowledge based database where a farmer may find readily available information to support cropping decisions. The knowledge base activates when the computed average crop yield is less than the 50% of the expected crop yield. The knowledge base provides information on risk, potential crops, and the geographical location (counties) where the crop may succeed. Also, it provides a technology to increase water productivity under limited availability situations. Further, the model can evaluate the impact of a climate change scenario (IPCC B2). Other inputs to the model being equal, the user may shift the model to run the climate change scenario and to compare the outputs of the model to assess the climate change impact on future crops yields. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Morales A.L.,Autonomous University of Queretaro | Guzman-Maldonado S.H.,National Institute for Forestry | Herrera-Hernandez M.G.,National Institute for Forestry
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Industries discard the pulp (endocarp), and peel (exocarp) of xoconostle or prickly pear fruit cultivar 'Cuaresmeño' (Opuntia matudae) as waste and utilize the flesh (mesocarp) which is the edible portion. Soluble phenols, vitamin C and betalain content of the different structures from three production sites in Mexico was determined as well as the characterization of simple phenols and antioxidant capacity. Soluble phenols of peel (840-863 mg GAE/100 g, DWB) were almost similar to that of flesh (919-986 mg GAE/100 g, dry weigh basis); meanwhile, ascorbic acid concentration of flesh was 2-fold higher compared to that of peel. The phenolic fraction of xoconostle structures consisted of gallic, vanillic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids; catechin, epicatechin, and vanillin were also identified by high-performance liquid chromatography - didoe array detection (HPLC-DAD). Xoconostle peel showed higher antioxidant activity compared to that of flesh (2-fold) and pulp (6-fold) and commonly consumed fruits and vegetables. There is potential to use xoconostle peel and pulp for the production of feed or food products.

Guzman-Maldonado S.H.,National Institute for Forestry | Guzman-Tovar I.,National Institute for Forestry | Hernandez-Lopez D.,Celaya Institute of Technology
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

The effect of sun-drying and oven-drying on the content of antioxidant compounds and antioxidant capacity of berrycactus fruit was evaluated. The sun drying temperature averaged 45°C while the temperature of the oven was 55°C. It takes only 14 h to produce berrycactus raisins in contrast to the 4 weeks that takes the production of grape raisins. Both the sun and stove drying processes reduced from 70 to 95% the betalains, soluble phenolics, condensed tannins, and ascorbic acid contents after 16 h of treatment. Berrycactus raisins showed similar contents of soluble phenols and condensed tannins when compared to that of blueberry and grape raisins. On the contrary, berrycactus showed 50% lower content of ascorbic acid compared to that of commercial raisins. The fiber contents of berrycactus raisins was 6-fold and 5-fold higher than the content of blueberry and grape raisins, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of berrycactus raisins was similar to that of blueberry raisins and 33% higher when compared to that of grape raisins.

Martinez-Cruz E.,National Institute for Forestry | Espitia-Rangel E.,National Institute for Forestry | Villasenor-Mir H.,National Institute for Forestry | Molina-Galan J.,Colegio de Mexico | And 3 more authors.
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2011

The influence of allelic variants of HMW Gand LMWG on viscoelastic properties of dough was evaluated in parents and 98 recombinant lines derived from the crosses Rebeca F2000 × Verano S91 and Galvez M87 × Bacanora T88. Genotypes were grown at Roque, Guanajuato during the Spring-Summer of 2008. Studied traits were mixing time, mixing stability and over-mixing tolerance, general strength of the dough and tenacity/extensibility ratio. HMWG alleles 1, 2*, 17 + 18 and 5 + 10 favored the quality of the dough and variants 2 + 12 and 7 + 9 were associated with low levels of gluten strength. A 7 + 9 allele was associated with genotypes prone to form tenacious dough. Alleles Glu-A3c, Glu-A3e, Glu-B3g and Glu-B3h from the cross Rebeca F2000 × Verano S91 affected positively the quality of gluten, while allelic variants Glu-A3b, Glu-B3h and Glu-D3c in the cross Galvez M87 × Bacanora T88 were associated with higher quality standards and its counterparts Glu-A3c, Glu-B3j and Glu-D3b were associated to lower quality parameters. Results also shown interaction among loci, hence breeders need to be aware not only of the effect of individual alleles but also its interaction. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Mejia-Teniente L.,Autonomous University of Queretaro | Duran-Flores F.D.,Autonomous University of Queretaro | Chapa-Oliver A.M.,Autonomous University of Queretaro | Torres-Pacheco I.,Autonomous University of Queretaro | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2013

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important ROS molecule (Reactive oxygen species) that serves as a signal of oxidative stress and activation of signaling cascades as a result of the early response of the plant to biotic stress. This response can also be generated with the application of elicitors, stable molecules that induce the activation of transduction cascades and hormonal pathways, which trigger induced resistance to environmental stress. In this work, we evaluated the endogenous H2O2 production caused by salicylic acid (SA), chitosan (QN), and H2O2 elicitors in Capsicum annuum L. Hydrogen peroxide production after elicitation, catalase (CAT) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities, as well as gene expression analysis of cat1, pal, and pathogenesis-related protein 1 (pr1) were determined. Our results displayed that 6.7 and 10 mM SA concentrations, and, 14 and 18 mM H2O2 concentrations, induced an endogenous H2O2 and gene expression. QN treatments induced the same responses in lesser proportion than the other two elicitors. Endogenous H2O2 production monitored during several days, showed results that could be an indicator for determining application opportunity uses in agriculture for maintaining plant alert systems against a stress. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Salgado-Hernandez E.G.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Bouda J.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Villa-Godoy A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Romano-Munoz J.L.,National Institute for Forestry | And 2 more authors.
Czech Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2014

Concentrations of calcidiol, calcitriol, and minerals in blood serum and colostrum of 14 primiparous and 16 multiparous Holstein dairy cows during short-period prepartum and postpartum were determined and compared. Blood samples were collected between days 5 and 2 prepartum and 6 h, 12 h, 7 and 21 days postpartum. Nearly 66% of primiparous and 71% of multiparous cows had subclinical postpartum hypocalcemia. Prepartum serum calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphorus (P) were higher in primiparous cows; Ca decreased in both groups at 6 and 12 h and returned to baseline values 7 days postpartum. Calcidiol and calcitriol concentrations were equal on day 5 prepartum in both groups. In multiparous cows, calcidiol and calcitriol concentration increased at 6 h postpartum and remained elevated at 12 h postpartum; there were no changes in primiparous cows for these analytes. The total secretion of Ca in the colostrum from the first milking was similar in both groups and positively correlated with serum Ca at 6 and 12 h after calving. It is concluded that postpartum increases in the calcidiol and calcitriol concentration were a normal response to the decrease of serum calcium concentration only in multiparous cows. The total Ca secretion in the colostrum of the first milking postpartum does not reflect the grade of hypocalcemia.

Vargas-Hernandez M.,Autonomous University of Queretaro | Munguia-Fragozo P.V.,Autonomous University of Queretaro | Cruz-Hernandez A.,Autonomous University of Queretaro | Guerrero B.Z.,National Institute for Forestry | And 7 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2014

Methanolic extracts of Acaciella angustissima pods (MEA) were analyzed in order to determine some biological activities such as antioxidant, antimutagenic and antimicrobial properties by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Kado microsuspension assay and in vitro antimicrobial assays, respectively. Moreover, a transcriptomic study of Timbe grown in greenhouse conditions was also performed using subtractive suppression hybridization methodology (SSH). MEA presented significant antioxidant activity by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods. The maximum concentration of MEA inhibited 80.33% and 77.39% of mutagenicity induced either by 4-nitro-O-phenylenediamine or sodium azide, respectively. MEA presented fungistatic activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophtora capsici. Moreover, a good in vivo protection against P. capsici was obtained in comparison to a commercial antifungal used toward this pathogen. Transcriptomic study displayed the expression of genes that have biological importance, such as protein TIC55, GATA transcription factor, maturase-like protein, and NAC domain protein. NAC domain protein might have some biotechnological or industrial application, because, NAC transcription factor plays an important role in responses to biotic and abiotic stress from some plants. Results suggest that Timbe might be useful in pharmaceutical, food and agro-industrial sectors. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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