Institute for Forage Crops

Kruševac, Serbia

Institute for Forage Crops

Kruševac, Serbia
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Strbanovic R.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | Stanisavljevic R.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | Dukanovic L.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | Postic D.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | And 3 more authors.
Tarim Bilimleri Dergisi | Year: 2017

Alfalfa is the most important forage plant species. There are numerous alfalfa varieties in the world with improved yield potential and forage quality. Many of them have also been created in the region of Southeast Europe, using various breeding techniques. This investigation was carried out in central Serbia and it included 15 alfalfa varieties of different origin (nine from USA and six from Europe). The objective was to determine their yield in each cut and total dry matter yield (TDMY) in the second (A1) and third (A2) year of exploitation, as well as forage quality: the content of mineral matter (MM), crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), crude fat matter (CFM) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE). Investigated varieties exhibited high total variability in dry matter yield (DMY) (A1: CV= 13.19%; A2: CV= 9.33%). DMY variability was higher with the varieties from USA (A1: CV= 13.65%; A2: CV= 9.92%) than with those from Europe (A1: CV= 6.67%; A2: CV= 8.01%). Varieties from USA also proved more variable in crude protein (CP) content than European varieties (CV= 6.27% and CV= 2.68%, respectively). Differences between the investigated varieties (genotypes) also influenced total variability of forage quality parameters, with total CV ranging from 5.07% for CP to 10.48% for CF. Dry matter yield (DMY) had significant positive correlation with CP (r= 0.344), CF (r= 0.342) and CFM (r= 0.306), and the strongest correlation, although negative, was between CF and NFE (r= -0.917). © Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi.

Djokic D.,Institute for Forage Crops | Sreckovic M.,University of Belgrade | Fidanovski Z.,Union University of Serbia | Ilic J.,University of Belgrade | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2017

Sainfoin seeds were irradiated by four different lasers (He-Ne laser, three semiconductor lasers of wavelengths 670 nm, 890 nm and of wavelength range 630-680 nm). Each group of seed was irradiated only once, using different exposure times: 1-, 2-, 3- and 4- minutes. The same procedure was applied before autumn (four months post-harvest) and spring sowing (eight months post-harvest). Laser bio-stimulation showed that the optimal operation of the laser was at 890 nm using 3-minutes exposure time in both sowing periods. Slightly weaker, but also significant (p ≥0.01) impact on improving germination was in case of laser of 890 nm using 2- and 4- minutes of exposure time, and 630-680 nm laser using 4- minutes exposure time in both sowing periods. In the spring sowing, only laser of 632.8 nm using 3- minutes exposure time and laser of 670 nm laser between 2- and 4- minutes exposure time had significant improvement of seed germination. In the autumn sowing, He-Ne lasers (632.8 nm) using 4- minutes exposure time, semiconductor lasers of 670 nm laser using 3- minutes exposure time, and 630-680 nm laser using 3- minutes exposure time, also significantly (p ≥0.01) increased seed germination compared to control. © 2017, Pakistan Agricultural Scientists Forum. All rights reserved.

Andjelkovic S.,Institute for Forage Crops
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2012

Different plant organs (leaves, flowers, stems or roots) from naturally occurring wild plants and trees, and cultivated plants (vegetables and fruits) were evaluated as possible bioindicators of heavy-metal pollution in the Republic of Serbia. Concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cd were determined in plant parts collected from areas with different degrees of metal pollution (Kosovska Mitrovica - industrial area and Leposavić - control area). Accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in the plant depend on the plant species, the levels of the metals in the soil and air, the element species and bioavailiability, pH, cation exchange capacity, climacteric condition, vegetation period and multiple other factors. The highest amounts of heavy metals were found in the root of the sensitive Plantago major (Pb 660, Zn 2300 and Cd 33.25 μg g -1 d.w.) and less in the resistant Rumex acetosella. In over ground organs the highest amounts of heavy metals were found in the leaves (283 μg g -1 d.w. Pb) and then in the fruits (3,5-136 μg g -1) and vegetables (1.5-13 μg g -1). In this study, the bark of Robimia pseudoacacia was a better bioindicator of heavy-metal pollution than other plant parts. Summarizing the results, it can be concluded that R. pseudoacacia, P. major and R. acetosella were better metal accumulators and fruits and vegetables were metal avoiders.

Sokolovic D.,Institute for forage crops | Lugic Z.,Institute for forage crops | Radovic J.,Institute for forage crops | Babic S.,Institute for forage crops
Genetika | Year: 2011

Due to specific climatic conditions, perennial ryegrass breeding in Serbia is focused on resistance or tolerance to abiotic stress factors, especially to drought and high temperatures. These traits should be associated with high dry matter yield and quality. Therefore, most frequently used initial material is autochthonous populations and ecotypes adapted to local agro-ecological conditions, but knowledge about their variability of important traits for breeding is missing. Pre-selection evaluation of ten populations of perennial ryegrass originating from Serbia is presented in this paper. Twenty five traits were investigated during the two-year period and processed using analysis of variance and multivariate statistical methods (cluster and principal components analysis). The goal was to determine diversity and genetic distances of investigated populations by phenotyping and to define traits considerably affecting the variability and discrimination of populations. On cluster diagram two groups of population are observed, but geographic origin of populations (lowland, hilly, mountainous habitat) was not influence to clustering of collection. Factor analysis has clarified that first seven principal components (PC) described almost 95%. The traits which show high correlation coefficients with first principal component were plant height in first cut, leaf length and width, DM of generative tillers, spike and spikelet length and 1000 seed weight, and with second principal component time of heading, terminal internode length, DM of vegetative tillers, spikelet number and FSU. It can be concluded that variability between populations was high and that differences of population were mainly affected by most important traits for breeding, such as components of dry matter production and some seed yield components.

Popovic V.,Serbian Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops | Sokolovic D.,Institute for Forage Crops
Genetika | Year: 2011

This research studied the phenotypic correlation coefficients between three Sorghum species, namely forage sorghum S. bicolor Moench. (c. NS-Džin), Sudan grass S. sudanense L. (c. Zora) and interspecies hybrid S. bicolor × S. sudanense (c. Siloking). The analyses were performed on plant material samples taken from the first cutting, when plants were in the beginning phase of tasseling. The following morphologic traits were studied: plant height, number of leaves per plant, stem leaf weight and mean stem weight. Additionally, their direct and indirect effect on dependent variable green biomass yield was analysed, for which path coefficients were calculated. This method enables more quality and full insight into relations existing among the studied traits, more precise establishment of cause-effect connections among them, as well as to separate direct from indirect effects of any particular trait on dependent variable, being biomass yield in this case. The analysis of phenotypic coefficients revealed differences in direct and indirect effect of certain traits on dependent variable. Sudan grass had the highest stem (2.281 m) and most leaves per plant (7.917). Forage sorghum had the largest leaf weight per plant (49.05 g), while interspecies hybrid had the highest mean stem weight (80.798 g). Variations of these morphologic traits among species were found to be significant and very significant. Morphologic traits - stem height and weight significantly affected sorghum green biomass yield. Leaf number and leaf portion in total biomass were negatively correlated with yield. Cultivars differed significantly regarding morphologic and productive traits. Sudan grass had the lowest green biomass yield, while forage sorghum and interspecies hybrid had significant yield increase.

Stanisavljevic R.,Institute for Forage Crops | Djokic D.,Institute for Forage Crops | Milenkovic J.,Institute for Forage Crops | Dukanovic L.,High School for Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Ciencia e Agrotecnologia | Year: 2011

During post-harvest maturation, different species vary in the length of dormancy breaking or germination increases. Seed dormancy and slow seedling development often limit establishment of forage grass stands. Seed germination and seedling vigour of Italian ryegrass (Lolium italicum A. Braun, Synonym Lolium multiflorum L.), cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.) and timothy (Phleum pretense L.) were observed after harvest and storage. After harvest in June, seeds were stored under standard storage conditions and sampled every 30 days after harvest (DAH), up to 270 DAH, and then every 60 days up to 990 DAH. At each date, seeds were tested for final germination percentage and for seedling vigour traits. Timothy seeds had a maximum germination (88%) and the best seedlings vigour at 90 DAH, which implies that early autumn (September-October) is the best sowing period for freshly harvested seeds of timothy. Timothy seed germination was poor from 270 DAH (73%). The best germination and vigour of Italian ryegrass and cocksfoot seedlings were between 270 and 330 DAH, which equates to spring sowing time (March-April) in the succeeding year. Cocksfoot and Italian ryegrass seeds maintained satisfactory germination levels up to 630 DAH (81%) and 810 DAH (81%), respectively. The data can serve for the determination of a proper storage duration management between harvest and sowing of the tested species under ambient conditions of south-eastern Europe.

Stanisavljevic R.,Institute for Forage Crops | Dragicevic V.,Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje | Milenkovic J.,Institute for Forage Crops | Djukanovic L.,Sirmium Seme Laboratory for Seed Testing | And 3 more authors.
Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

After-ripening is a complex enzymatic and biochemical process resulting in the breakage of non-deep physiological dormancy. The experiment was set up to identify the minimum duration of storage after harvest for completion of afterripening in meadow (Festuca pratensis Huds.), tall (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and red fescue (Festuca rubra L.). The seeds were stored under ware-house conditions for 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 days after harvest (DAH). After the storage periods, the seeds were tested for germination and the primary root length, shoot length and seedlings biomass were measured. The final counts in all three species amounted to 60-65% germination immediately after harvest, suggesting a medium level of embryonic dormancy. The after-ripening during storage improved the final germination in all three species with decreasing intensity. In meadow fescue, the final germination was significantly improved up to 150 DAH, while the seedling size did not change significantly. In tall and red fescue, after-ripening significantly improved the final germination up to 120 DAH, while the seedling size variables reached maximum values after 150 DAH. The obtained data can serve for the determination of proper storage duration management between harvest and sowing (autumn/spring) of the tested fescue species under agro-ecological conditions of south-eastern Europe.

Zivkovic B.,Institute for Forage Crops | Radovic J.,Institute for Forage Crops | Sokolovic D.,Institute for Forage Crops | Siler B.,University of Belgrade | And 2 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2012

Alfalfa is the world's widest grown forage crop with novel applications in the production of commercial proteins and biomass for biofuel. These alternative uses of alfalfa require new cultivars and breeding processes adjusted to specific production systems and demands. An estimate of the genetic diversity and differentiation between genotypes of breeding germplasm is of key importance for its improvement. Traditionally, it is has been achieved through morphological analyses, although novel methods of molecular marker analysis offer faster and more reliable tools. The objective of this study was to determine genetic variability of ten populations of alfalfa as a part of a collection at the Institute for Forage Crops, Kruševac, Serbia and to reveal relationships among genotypes through UPGMA. 11UPGMA - Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic means. cluster analysis. Data obtained through three different methods were compared and the correlation among them was estimated. It has been found that clustering of examined genotypes based on analysis of morphology traits has the best fit with geographical origin of genotypes. Methods using molecular markers, as seed storage proteins or RAPDs,. 22RAPD - Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. provide a rapid way to discriminate between genotypes and have strong mutual correlation. Estimating the genetic distance through molecular marker analysis showed a poor fit of distance in relation to morphological analyses. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Krnjaja V.,Serbian Institute for Animal Husbandry | Mandic V.,Serbian Institute for Animal Husbandry | Levic J.,Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje | Stankovic S.,Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje | And 3 more authors.
Crop Protection | Year: 2015

In this study, the influence of nitrogen (N)-fertilization on Fusarium head blight (FHB) intensity (disease index), spike weight (SW), grain weight per spike (GWS), fungal incidence and deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON) contamination was evaluated in winter wheat after artificial inoculation with Fusarium graminearum under field conditions. The trial was conducted using two Serbian wheat cultivars (Pobeda and Renesansa) during two growing seasons (2010-2011 and 2011-2012). Three nitrogen rates, 0, 75 and 150kgNha-1 were evaluated.Nitrogen at higher rates (75 and 150kgha-1) significantly increased SW and GWS in 2011 but there was no significant impact on FHB index in both growing seasons. Cultivars did not differ significantly in SW and GWS; however, FHB index was significantly higher (P=0.05) in Renesansa in 2012. The effect of N rates was not significant on incidence of F. graminearum and DON and ZON levels in wheat kernels in 2011, but it was significant (P≤0.01) in 2012 in which the highest level of incidence of F.graminearum and mycotoxins was observed in the treatment with 150kgNha-1. In both growing seasons, the effects of cultivar and spike treatments were significant (P≤0.01) for DON, whereas these effects were not significant for ZON in 2011. Higher levels of DON were observed in Pobeda, whereas Renesansa had higher levels of ZON. Furthermore, there were higher levels of DON and ZON in inoculated than non-inoculated spikes in both growing seasons.These results indicated that nitrogen fertilization did not increase FHB intensity in both growing seasons and did not increase levels of DON and ZON in 2011. On the other hand, artificial inoculation significantly increased FHB index in both growing seasons, resulting in greater contamination of kernels with F.graminearum and mycotoxins, in particular DON. Although the two cultivars differed in their effects on some of the investigated parameters, both were susceptible to FHB and mycotoxin accumulation, in particular DON. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Jevtic G.,Institute for forage crops | Andelkovic B.,Institute for forage crops | Lugic Z.,Institute for forage crops | Radovic J.,Institute for forage crops | Dinic B.,Institute for forage crops
Genetika | Year: 2012

In this experiment, colonies of six regional populations from the territory of the Republic of Serbia were included, and two generations (maternal colonies and their offspring) were observed. In two inspections (fall and spring), production traits and temperament were observed. Daughter queen bees mated in uncontrolled conditions (free-mating) in order to determine heritability of production traits in terms of practical beekeeping. The heritability coefficients (h2) for production traits calculated. It was found that the honey yield was mostly determined by genetic, but environmental conditions also had significant influence. Heritability for honey yield (h2) ranged from 72.72% (Rasina population) to 81.04% (Banat population). Colony strength was very dependent on external factors, but also from the very population. When it comes to food supply (honey and pollen), in the inspections, large differences in the heritability coefficient were determined, which is explained by the interaction of genetic factors (the foraging instinct) and environmental factors (honey flora and climatic conditions during foraging) and the influence of beekeepers (feeding, etc.).

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