Skinner G.E.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration |
Skinner G.E.,Institute for Food Safety and Health IFSH |
Fleischman G.J.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration |
Fleischman G.J.,Institute for Food Safety and Health IFSH |
And 10 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2015
The potential threat of terrorist attacks against the United States food supply using neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum (BoNT) has resulted in the need for studying the effect of various food process operations on the bioavailability of this toxin. The objective of this study was to evaluate C. botulinum type A neurotoxin bioavailability after a simulated hot fill juice bottling operation. C. botulinum type A acid mud toxin (,106 mouse lethal dose [MLD50]/ml) was deposited into juice bottles at an experimentally determined fastest cooling spot. Bottles (12 or 20 oz [355 and 592 ml]) were filled with either apple juice or an orange drink, at 80 or 85uC, in either upright or inverted orientations. Toxicity of the juice was evaluated as a function of holding time (1 to 2 min) by the mouse bioassay. The fastest cooling point in the upright orientation was determined to be at a bottle's bottom rim. In the inverted orientation, the fastest cooling point was in the bottle cap region. With respect to these two points, the upright bottle cooled faster than the inverted bottle, which was reflected in a higher inactivation of BoNT in the latter. For the orange drink (pH 2.9) toxicity was reduced by 0.5x106 MLD50/ml to a nondetectable level after 1 min in all bottle sizes, orientations, and temperatures as measured by the mouse bioassay. This indicates that there was at least a 0.5x106 MLD50/ml reduction in activity. Inactivation in apple juice (pH 4.0), to the same degree as in the orange drink, was found only for the inverted orientation at 85uC. Complete inactivation in apple juice for all conditions was found at a lower added toxin level of 0.25x105 MLD50/ml. In general, bottle inversion and filling at 85uC provided complete inactivation of BoNT to the 0.5x106 MLD50/ml level. All experiments resulted in the inactivation of 2.5 | 104 MLD50/ml of BoNT regardless of juice type, fill temperature, or bottle orientation and size. Copyright © International Association for Food Protection.