Junker F.,Johann Heinrich Von Thunen Institute |
Heckelei T.,Institute for Food and Resource Economics
Agricultural Economics | Year: 2012
The European Union (EU) and the Mercosur countries resumed negotiations on trade liberalization in May 2010 after several years of interruption. The article analyzes who stands to benefit and who is likely to lose if the EU liberalizes Mercosur's access to domestic beef markets. This economic assessment is performed using a partial equilibrium model for beef operating at a low level of product aggregation, paying specific attention to the role of Tariff Rate Quotas (TRQs). Consultations with experts from the meat sector allowed us to identify the allocation of the quota rents to different stakeholders. Under an agreement based on the EU's negotiation proposal, trade impacts are projected to be small due to the present quota overfill. As expected, impacts are more pronounced under the conditions set out in Mercosur's proposal. The results confirm that the distribution of quota rents can be decisive in determining welfare effects. © 2011 International Association of Agricultural Economists.
Langen N.,University of Bonn |
Langen N.,Institute for Food and Resource Economics
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2011
While charitable giving stagnates, Fair Trade and organic labelling as well as Cause-related Marketing campaigns are on the rise in Germany. The question as to whether the efficiency of the different systems is of relevance for consumers has received little attention in the literature so far. A latent class model for discrete choice analysis reveals five consumer segments with well distinguished preferences and willingness to pay measures for the modes of ethical consumption as well as for different donation amounts. For 27% of the 484 respondents ethical consumption occurs at the expense of other forms of ethical behaviour such as charitable giving. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Boos A.,Institute for Food and Resource Economics |
Holm-Muller K.,Institute for Food and Resource Economics
Natural Resources Forum | Year: 2012
This paper shows the strong relation between the factors that lead to the resource curse (RC) and factors that lead to a decline of genuine savings (GS). There is substantial empirical evidence that economies that rely predominantly on their natural resources are also characterized by slower economic growth. This so-called RC is commonly traced back to the fact that natural resources' generate rents that are independent of a country's economic performance, which can lead to suboptimal reinvestments of this consumed natural capital. We argue that the factors responsible for the RC also have a negative effect on GS, a concept that measures "weak" sustainable development by considering reinvestment of natural capital rents in physical and human capital. We discuss whether the RC hampers possibilities for resource abundant countries to obtain sufficiently high rates of GS, and find indeed many reasons why resource-dependent countries have problems achieving positive GS rates. We survey both areas of research, emphasizing the influence of the exogenous and endogenous determinants of economic growth, which are usually used to theoretically and empirically explain the RC on the three different forms of capital considered by GS. We specify why most countries suffering from the RC have negative GS rates and explain in detail where the linkages are. This overview could help with potential advancements in the explanation of GS through the inclusion of RC effects. © 2012 United Nations.