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Baxter S.D.,Institute for Families in Society | Guinn C.H.,Institute for Families in Society | Vaadi K.K.,Institute for Families in Society | Puryear M.P.,Institute for Families in Society | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics | Year: 2014

Background: Practitioners and researchers are interested in assessing children's dietary intake and physical activity together to maximize resources and minimize subject burden. Objective: Our aim was to investigate differences in dietary and/or physical activity recall accuracy by content (diet only; physical activity only; diet and physical activity), retention interval (same-day recalls in the afternoon; previous-day recalls in the morning), and grade (third; fifth). Design: Children (n=144; 66% African American, 13% white, 12% Hispanic, 9% other; 50% girls) from four schools were randomly selected for interviews about one of three contents. Each content group was equally divided by retention interval, each equally divided by grade, each equally divided by sex. Information concerning diet and physical activity at school was validated with school-provided breakfast and lunch observations, and accelerometry, respectively. Dietary accuracy measures were food-item omission and intrusion rates, and kilocalorie correspondence rate and inflation ratio. Physical activity accuracy measures were absolute and arithmetic differences for moderate to vigorous physical activity minutes. Statistical analyses performed: For each accuracy measure, linear models determined effects of content, retention interval, grade, and their two-way and three-way interactions; ethnicity and sex were control variables. Results: Content was significant within four interactions: intrusion rate (content×retention-interval×grade; P=0.0004), correspondence rate (content×grade; P=0.0004), inflation ratio (content×grade; P=0.0104), and arithmetic difference (content×retention-interval×grade; P=0.0070). Retention interval was significant for correspondence rate (P=0.0004), inflation ratio (P=0.0014), and three interactions: omission rate (retention-interval×grade; P=0.0095), intrusion rate, and arithmetic difference (both already mentioned). Grade was significant for absolute difference (P=0.0233) and five interactions mentioned. Content effects depended on other factors. Grade effects were mixed. Dietary accuracy was better with same-day than previous-day retention interval. Conclusions: Results do not support integrating dietary intake and physical activity in children's recalls, but do support using shorter rather than longer retention intervals to yield more accurate dietary recalls. Additional validation studies need to clarify age effects and identify evidence-based practices to improve children's accuracy for recalling dietary intake and/or physical activity. © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

Baxter S.D.,Institute for Families in Society | Smith A.F.,Cleveland State University | Hitchcock D.B.,University of South Carolina | Guinn C.H.,Institute for Families in Society | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background: Dietary recall accuracy is related to retention interval (RI) (i.e., time between to-be-reported meals and the interview), and possibly to prompts. To the best of our knowledge, no study has evaluated their combined effect. Objective: The combined influence of RI and prompts on children's recall accuracy was investigated in this study. Two RIs [short (prior-24-h recall obtained in afternoon) and long (previous-day recall obtained in morning)] were crossed with 4 prompts [forward (distant-to-recent), meal-name (breakfast, lunch, etc.), open (no instructions), and reverse (recent-to-distant)], creating 8 conditions. Methods: Fourth-grade children (n = 480; 50% girls) were randomly selected from consenting children at 10 schools in 4 districts in a southern state during 3 school years (2011-2012, 2012-2013, and 2013-2014). Each child was observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch, and interviewed one time under 1 of the 8 conditions. Condition assignment was constrained so that each had 60 children (30 girls). Accuracy measures were food-item omission and intrusion rates, and energy correspondence rate and inflation ratio. For each measure, linear models determined effects of RI, prompt, gender, and interactions (2-way, 3-way); race/ethnicity, school year, and district were control variables. Results: RI (P values < 0.015) and prompt (P values < 0.005) were significant for all 4 accuracy measures. RI × prompt (P values < 0.001) was significant for 3 accuracy measures (not intrusion rate). Prompt × gender (P = 0.005) was significant for omission rate. RI × prompt × gender was significant for intrusion rate and inflation ratio (P values < 0.001). For the short vs. long RI across prompts and genders, accuracy was better by 33-50% for each accuracy measure. Conclusions: To obtain the most accurate recalls possible from children, studies should be designed to use a short rather than long RI. Prompts affect children's recall accuracy, although the effectiveness of different prompts depends on RI and varies by gender: at a short RI, the choice of prompts has little systematic effect on accuracy, whereas at a long RI, reverse prompts may elicit the most accurate recalls.

Baxter S.D.,Institute for Families in Society | Guinn C.H.,Institute for Families in Society | Tebbs J.M.,University of South Carolina | Royer J.A.,University of South Carolina | Royer J.A.,Office of Research and Statistics
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics | Year: 2013

School-based initiatives to combat childhood obesity may use academic performance to measure success. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between academic achievement and body mass index percentile, socioeconomic status (SES), and race by linking existing datasets that are not routinely linked. Data from a school-based project (with National Institutes of Health funding) concerning dietary recall accuracy were linked with data from the state's Department of Education through the state's Office of Research and Statistics. Data were available on 1,504 fourth-grade, predominantly African-American children from 18 schools total in one district in South Carolina during the 2004-2005, 2005-2006, and 2006-2007 school years. School staff administered standardized tests in English, math, social studies, and science. Researchers measured children's weight and height. Children were categorized as low-SES, medium-SES, or high-SES based on eligibility for free, reduced-price, or full-price school meals, respectively. Results from marginal regression analyses for each sex for the four academic subjects, separately and combined, showed that test scores were not related to body mass index percentile, but were positively related to SES (P values <0.0001), and were related to race, with lower scores for African-American children than children of other races (P values <0.0039). Cost-efficient opportunities exist to create longitudinal data sets to investigate relationships between academic performance and obesity across kindergarten through 12th-grade children. State agencies can house body mass index data in state-based central repositories where staff can use globally unique identifiers and link data across agencies. Results from such studies could potentially change the way school administrators view nutrition and physical education. © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

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