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Macaluso G.,Institute for Experimental Veterinary Medicine of Sicily | Fiorenza G.,Institute for Experimental Veterinary Medicine of Sicily | Gaglio R.,University of Palermo | Mancuso I.,Institute for Experimental Veterinary Medicine of Sicily | Scatassa M.L.,Institute for Experimental Veterinary Medicine of Sicily
Italian Journal of Food Safety | Year: 2016

Bacteriocins are antimicrobial proteins produced by bacteria that inhibit the growth of other bacteria with a bactericidal or bacteriostatic mode of action. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Bacteriocinogenic LAB are generally recognised as safe (GRAS) and useful to control the frequent development of pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. For this reason they are commonly used as starter cultures in food fermentations. In this study, the authors describe the results of a screening on 699 LAB isolated from wooden vat surfaces, raw milk and traditional Sicilian cheeses, for the production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances, by comparing two alternative methods. The antagonistic activity of LAB and its proteinaceous nature were evaluated using the spot-on-thelawn and the well-diffusion assay (WDA) and the sensitivity to proteolytic (proteinase K, protease B and trypsin), amylolytic (a-amylase) and lipolytic (lipase) enzymes. The indicator strains used were: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis. A total of 223 strains (belonging to the species Enterococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp., Pediococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp. and Lactococcus lactis) were found to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes by using the spot-on-the-lawn method; only 37 of these were confirmed by using the WDA. The direct addition of bacteriocin-producing cultures into dairy products can be a more practical and economic option for the improvement of the safety and quality of the final product. © G. Macaluso et al., 2016. Source


Schiavo M.R.,Institute for Experimental Veterinary Medicine of Sicily | Manno C.,Institute for Experimental Veterinary Medicine of Sicily | Zimmardi A.,Institute for Experimental Veterinary Medicine of Sicily | Vodret B.,Institute for Experimental Veterinary Medicine of Sardinia | And 3 more authors.
Italian Journal of Food Safety | Year: 2015

The presence of foreign bodies in mushrooms affects their marketability and may result in health risks to consumers. The inspection of fresh or dried mushrooms today is very important in view of the increased consumption of this kind of food. Ten samples of dried mushrooms collected in supermarkets were examined for evidence of entomological contamination by macro and microscopic analytical methods, the so-called filth-test. A total of 49 46 determinations, comprising 15 g of the vegetable matrix, were made. The microscopic filth test consistently detected an irregular distribution of physical contaminants following repeated determinations of the same sample. Visual examination, on the other hand, was not sufficient to ensure a product free of contaminants © 2015, Page Press Publications. All rights reserved. Source


Tilocca M.G.,Institute for Experimental Veterinary Medicine of Sardinia | Caneglias E.,Institute for Experimental Veterinary Medicine of Sardinia | Vodret B.,Institute for Experimental Veterinary Medicine of Sardinia | Mancuso M.R.,Institute for Experimental Veterinary Medicine of Sardinia | And 3 more authors.
Italian Journal of Food Safety | Year: 2015

The European legislation set the new hygiene standards in food chain with the purpose to ensure high levels of public health protection in relation to food production. In order to guarantee excellent hygiene standards in food chain, particular attention must be paid to the presence of foreign matter, like light solid impurities of mineral, vegetable or animal origin. The light filth test is a suitable method used to detect and count light solid impurities applicable to different foodstuffs. We report the results of the analysis of 93 foodstuffs official samples investigated for the presence of foreign matter at the Institute for Experimental Veterinary Medicine of Sardinia, from 2012 to 2013. Insect fragments were found in a sample of semolina and in a sample of canned tomato; plastic fragments were found in a sample of grated bread. © M.G. Tilocca et al., 2015 Licensee PAGEPress, Italy. Source


Giammanco M.,University of Palermo | Aiello S.,University of Palermo | Casuccio A.,University of Palermo | La Guardia M.,University of Palermo | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Biological Research (Italy) | Year: 2016

Experimental studies have highlighted that the administration of 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (T2) to rats fed diets rich in lipids induces a decrease of cholesterol and triglycerides plasma levels and body weight (BW) without inducing liver steatosis. On the basis of these observations we carried out some experimental in vivo studies to assess the effects of multiple high doses of T2 on the pituitary thyroid axis of rats fed diet rich in lipids. Fifteen male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of five animals each. The first group (N group) received standard diet, the second group was fed with a high fat diet (HFD group), while the third group (HFDT2 group) was additionally given T2 intraperitoneally at a dose level of 70 μg/100 g of BW three times a week up to four weeks. At the end of the treatment, blood sample from each animal was collected, centrifuged and the serum was stored at -20°C. The serum concentrations of thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine, thyroxine, adrenocorticotropic hormone, triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase were then determined. In addition, liver of rats was examined by histology in order to assess the presence and degree of steatosis. The administration of T2 to rats fed with a high fat diet suppressed TSH secretion (P=0.013) while no steatosis was observed in the liver of these animals. Our data show that multiple administrations of high doses of T2 to rats fed diets rich in lipid inhibit TSH secretion and prevent the onset of liver steatosis in these animals. © M. Giammanco et al., 2016. Source

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