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Jackson, WY, United States

Downing S.,Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University | Esterhuizen-Londt M.,Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University | Esterhuizen-Londt M.,TU Berlin | Grant Downing T.,Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University | Grant Downing T.,The Institute for Ethnomedicine
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2015

The cyanobacterial neurotoxin, β-. N-methylamino-. l-alanine (BMAA) bioaccumulates and biomagnifies within the environment. However, most reports on the environmental presence of BMAA focus on the presence of BMAA in animals rather than in plants. Various laboratory studies have reported that this neurotoxin, implicated in neurodegenerative disease, is rapidly taken up by various aquatic and terrestrial plants, including crop plants. In this study the metabolism of BMAA in the aquatic macrophyte, Ceratophyllum demersum, was investigated using stable isotopically labelled BMAA. Data show that the toxin is rapidly removed from the environment by the plant. However, during depuration cellular BMAA concentrations decrease considerably, without excretion of the toxin back into the environment and without catabolism of BMAA, evidenced by the absence of label transfer to other amino acids. This strongly suggests that BMAA is metabolised via covalent modification and sequestered inside the plant as a BMAA-derivative. This modification may be reversed in humans following consumption of BMAA-containing plant material. These data therefore impact on the assessment of the risk of human exposure to this neurotoxin. © 2015. Source


Patent
The Institute For Ethnomedicine | Date: 2011-01-27

Methods for screening for neurological disorders are disclosed. Specifically, methods are disclosed for screening for neurological disorders in a subject by analyzing a tissue sample obtained from the subject for the presence of elevated levels of neurotoxic amino acids or neurotoxic derivatives thereof associated with neurological disorders. In particular, methods are disclosed for diagnosing a neurological disorder in a subject, or predicting the likelihood of developing a neurological disorder in a subject, by determining the levels of -N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in a tissue sample obtained from the subject. Methods for screening for environmental factors associated with neurological disorders are disclosed. Methods for inhibiting, treating or preventing neurological disorders are disclosed.


Patent
The Institute For Ethnomedicine | Date: 2013-09-20

Methods for screening for neurological disorders are disclosed. Specifically, methods are disclosed for screening for neurological disorders in a subject by analyzing a tissue sample obtained from the subject for the presence of elevated levels of neurotoxic amino acids or neurotoxic derivatives thereof associated with neurological disorders. In particular, methods are disclosed for diagnosing a neurological disorder in a subject, or predicting the likelihood of developing a neurological disorder in a subject, by determining the levels of -N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in a tissue sample obtained from the subject. Methods for screening for environmental factors associated with neurological disorders are disclosed. Methods for inhibiting, treating or preventing neurological disorders are disclosed.


L-serine, L-serine precursors, L-serine derivatives and L-serine conjugates for treatment, amelioration and/or prevention of protein aggregation/tangles/plaques and diseases associated with protein aggregation/tangles/plaques. In particular, treatments and uses for L-serine, L-serine precursors, L-serine derivatives and L-serine conjugates include Alzheimers disease (AD), Parkinsons disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington disease (HD).


L-serine, L-serine precursors, L-serine derivatives and L-serine conjugates for treatment, amelioration and/or prevention of protein aggregation/tangles/plaques and diseases associated with protein aggregation/tangles/plaques. In particular, treatments and uses for L-serine, L-serine precursors, L-serine derivatives and L-serine conjugates include Alzheimers disease (AD), Parkinsons disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington disease (HD).

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