Institute for Epidemiology and Pathogen Diagnostics

Braunschweig, Germany

Institute for Epidemiology and Pathogen Diagnostics

Braunschweig, Germany
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Ding G.-C.,Institute for Epidemiology and Pathogen Diagnostics | Piceno Y.M.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Heuer H.,Institute for Epidemiology and Pathogen Diagnostics | Weinert N.,Institute for Epidemiology and Pathogen Diagnostics | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Natural scrublands in semi-arid deserts are increasingly being converted into fields. This results in losses of characteristic flora and fauna, and may also affect microbial diversity. In the present study, the long-term effect (50 years) of such a transition on soil bacterial communities was explored at two sites typical of semi-arid deserts. Comparisons were made between soil samples from alfalfa fields and the adjacent scrublands by two complementary methods based on 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses revealed significant effects of the transition on community composition of Bacteria, Actinobacteria, Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria at both sites. PhyloChip hybridization analysis uncovered that the transition negatively affected taxa such as Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidimicrobiales, Rubrobacterales, Deltaproteobacteria and Clostridia, while Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria increased in abundance. Redundancy analysis suggested that the community composition of phyla responding to agricultural use (except for Spirochaetes) correlated with soil parameters that were significantly different between the agricultural and scrubland soil. The arable soils were lower in organic matter and phosphate concentration, and higher in salinity. The variation in the bacterial community composition was higher in soils from scrubland than from agriculture, as revealed by DGGE and PhyloChip analyses, suggesting reduced beta diversity due to agricultural practices. The long-term use for agriculture resulted in profound changes in the bacterial community and physicochemical characteristics of former scrublands, which may irreversibly affect the natural soil ecosystem. © 2013 Ding et al.

Phan H.T.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Phan H.T.,Institute of Biotechnology IBT | Pohl J.,Hochschule Anhalt | Floss D.M.,Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf | And 7 more authors.
Plant Biotechnology Journal | Year: 2013

Summary: Reducing the cost of vaccine production is a key priority for veterinary research, and the possibility of heterologously expressing antigen in plants provides a particularly attractive means of achieving this. Here, we report the expression of the avian influenza virus haemagglutinin (AIV HA) in tobacco, both as a monomer and as a trimer in its native and its ELPylated form. We firstly presented evidence to produce stabilized trimers of soluble HA in plants. ELPylation of these trimers does not influence the trimerization. Strong expression enhancement in planta caused by ELPylation was demonstrated for trimerized H5-ELP. ELPylated trimers could be purified by a membrane-based inverse transition cycling procedure with the potential of successful scale-up. The trimeric form of AIV HA was found to enhance the HA-specific immune response compared with the monomeric form. Plant-derived AIV HA trimers elicited potentially neutralizing antibodies interacting with both homologous virus-like particles from plants and heterologous inactivated AIV. ELPylation did not influence the functionality and the antigenicity of the stabilized H5 trimers. These data allow further developments including scale-up of production, purification and virus challenge experiments with the final goal to achieve suitable technologies for efficient avian flu vaccine production. Copyright © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd 115 June 2013 10.1111/pbi.12049 Research Article Research articles © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Meressa B.-H.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Meressa B.-H.,University of Bonn | Heuer H.,Institute for Epidemiology and Pathogen Diagnostics | Dehne H.-W.,University of Bonn | Hallmann J.,Julius Kuhn Institute
Russian Journal of Nematology | Year: 2015

Meloidogyne hapla, considered mainly a temperate species, was recently detected parasitising rose plants in glasshouses in Ethiopia. Roses are grown in more than 80% of the existing cut-flower producing farms in Ethiopia. Nevertheless, its production is increasingly facing serious nematode problems. Consequently, soil samples were collected from 12 randomly selected farms distributed in six districts around Addis Ababa. Nine of these farms were positive for Meloidogyne spp. and six were positive for M. hapla. Pure isolates of 125 Meloidogyne spp. from the latter six farms were established from single egg masses on tomato cv. Moneymaker. Based on molecular and morphological data, eightytwo of the isolates were identified as M. hapla. Morphological characters based on light and scanning electron microscope images together with morphometric measurements of females, males and secondstage juveniles (J2) were compared with populations of M. hapla from different countries. In addition, molecular characterisation was performed based on the 28S D2-D3 expansion segments within the ribosomal DNA and the region located between cytochrome oxidase unit II and the 16S rRNA gene of the mitochondria (mtDNA). Morphological characters of females, males and J2 were in line with descriptions of other M. hapla populations but there were a few exceptions in morphometric measurements. The female perennial pattern of the Ethiopian populations fitted the original description but was smaller than that of the population described by Jepson. The J2 body size was larger compared to previous descriptions from Hawaii and East Africa and the a ratio value was much greater than for the East African population but similar to the Hawaiian population. Phylogenetic relationships of the Ethiopian M. hapla population with other related Meloidogyne species on the bases of both mtDNA and D2-D3 expansion segment sequence analysis revealed highly supported clades containing the Ethiopian isolates as well as other published isolates from different countries.

Nothnagel T.,Institute for Breeding Research on Horticultural and Fruit Crops | Kramer R.,Institute for Breeding Research on Horticultural and Fruit Crops | Budahn H.,Institute for Breeding Research on Horticultural and Fruit Crops | Schrader O.,Institute for Breeding Research on Horticultural and Fruit Crops | And 3 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

The paper reports preliminary results of a research project aiming to improve the genetic basis of garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) for resistance to biotic and abiotic stress as well as quality associated compounds via interspecific and intersubspecific crosses. In the present study, interspecific hybrids between A. albus × A. officinalis, A. maritimus × A. officinalis, A. officinalis × A. verticillatus and A. amarus × A. verticillatus were generated by hand pollination and embryo rescue. The F1 hybrids were analyzed by using molecular and cytological techniques. Whereas the A. albus × A. officinalis hybrid was triploid, the three other hybrids were tetraploid. The morphological characterisation as well as chemical investigation of volatile compounds of the hybrids suggests an intermediate stage between the cross parents. Additionally, the hybrids expressed a number of novel volatile compounds. Potential value of the obtained interspecific hybrids and the further work is discussed.

Ziegler A.,Institute for Epidemiology and Pathogen Diagnostics | Klingebeil K.,Institute for Epidemiology and Pathogen Diagnostics | Papke V.,Institute for Epidemiology and Pathogen Diagnostics | Kastirr U.,Institute for Epidemiology and Pathogen Diagnostics
Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection | Year: 2014

Triticale, a cross between rye and wheat, is a crop important for animal feed and the production of biogas and ethanol. Soil-borne viruses found in wheat and rye, such as Furo-viruses and Bymoviruses, also infect triticale. In order to evaluate resistance/tolerance it is necessary to accurately quantify virus content in the plants. We have developed RT-qPCR assays for the quantitative detection of the Bymovirus Wheat spindle streak mosaic Virus (WSSMV) and the Furovirus Soil-borne cereal mosaic virus (SBCMV) in field samples. Both a SYBR Green and a hydrolysis probe approach were tested. The RT-qPCR approach allows the quantitative evaluation and differentiation of triticale resistance to WSSMV and SBCMV. The reproducible large-scale analysis of field samples is feasible. © Eugen Ulmer KG, Stuttgart.

Heuer H.,Institute for Epidemiology and Pathogen Diagnostics | Smalla K.,Institute for Epidemiology and Pathogen Diagnostics
FEMS Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2012

It is increasingly being recognized that the transfer of conjugative plasmids across species boundaries plays a vital role in the adaptability of bacterial populations in soil. There are specific driving forces and constraints of plasmid transfer within bacterial communities in soils. Plasmid-mediated genetic variation allows bacteria to respond rapidly with adaptive responses to challenges such as irregular antibiotic or metal concentrations, or opportunities such as the utilization of xenobiotic compounds. Cultivation-independent detection and capture of plasmids from soil bacteria, and complete sequencing have provided new insights into the role and ecology of plasmids. Broad host range plasmids such as those belonging to IncP-1 transfer a wealth of accessory functions which are carried by similar plasmid backbones. Plasmids with a narrower host range can be more specifically adapted to particular species and often transfer genes which complement chromosomally encoded functions. Plasmids seem to be an ancient and successful strategy to ensure survival of a soil population in spatial and temporal heterogeneous conditions with various environmental stresses or opportunities that occur irregularly or as a novel challenge in soil. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

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