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Medicine, South Korea

Sanayei Y.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Chaibakhsh N.,Guilan University | Chaibakhsh A.,Guilan University | Pendashteh A.R.,Institute for Environmental Research | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Chemical Engineering

A Wiener-Laguerre model with artificial neural network (ANN) as its nonlinear static part was employed to describe the dynamic behavior of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) used for the treatment of dye-containing wastewater. The model was developed based on the experimental data obtained from the treatment of an effluent containing a reactive textile azo dye, Cibacron yellow FN-2R, by Sphingomonas paucimobilis bacterium. The influent COD, MLVSS, and reaction time were selected as the process inputs and the effluent COD and BOD as the process outputs. The best possible result for the discrete pole parameter was α = 0.44. In order to adjust the parameters of ANN, the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm was employed. The results predicted by the model were compared to the experimental data and showed a high correlation with R 2 > 0.99 and a low mean absolute error (MAE). The results from this study reveal that the developed model is accurate and efficacious in predicting COD and BOD parameters of the dye-containing wastewater treated by SBR. The proposed modeling approach can be applied to other industrial wastewater treatment systems to predict effluent characteristics. © 2014 Yasaman Sanayei et al. Source

Dehghani M.H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Dehghani M.H.,Institute for Environmental Research | Sanaei D.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Ali I.,Jamia Millia Islamia University | Bhatnagar A.,University of Eastern Finland
Journal of Molecular Liquids

In the present study, treated waste newspaper (TWNP) was used to remove chromium(VI) from aqueous solution using batch experiments. The adsorption parameters optimized were: initial Cr(VI) concentration (5, 20, 50 mg/l), contact time (60 min.), adsorbent dose (3.0 g/L), and solution pH (3.0). The experimental data fitted well to Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0. 98; maximum adsorption capacity 59.88 mg/g.) and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The rate constant k2 varied from 0.0019 to 0.0068 at initial Cr (VI) concentration from 5 to 20 mg/L. It was observed that adsorption of Cr(VI) was pH dependent. The percentage removal of Cr(VI) was 59.88 mg/g (64% at pH 3). The results of the present study suggest that TWNP may be used as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license. Source

Sun N.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | Sun N.,CAS Institute of Earth Environment | Li X.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | Li X.,CAS Institute of Earth Environment | And 4 more authors.
Quaternary International

Assessing the potential impact of increased temperature needs examination of robust palaeorecords that contain analogues. The fossil charcoal (anthracological) records from the mid-Holocene archaeological sites can provide palaeo-analogues on the impacts of climate change. The Xishanping and Dadiwan sites were continuously developed during the Neolithic Culture in the Tianshui Basin, western Loess Plateau. A total of 24 samples of fossil charcoal were recovered using a floatation method. At least 100 fragments were examined from each sample, and these fragments were identified following standard procedures, and the results were used to reconstruct the vegetation and plant diversity between 5200 and 4300calBP, which was a warm period for the region. The charcoal evidence from the Xishanping and Dadiwan sites confirm that woody plants were widely available, including temperate taxa such as Betula, Ulmus, Quercus, Carpinus, Acer, Corylus and Padus, and typical subtropical taxa such as Bambusoideae, Liquidambar formosana, Castanopsis, Pseudotsuga sinensis, and Eucommia ulmoides. The assemblages of fossil charcoal show that mixed forests of north-subtropical evergreen and deciduous broadleaved trees existed. This is a broader range of woody plants than at present in the Tianshui Basin. This leads to the conclusion that the warmer and increasing monsoon precipitation resulted in a northward shift in the southern vegetation zones. And that the natural botanical diversity between 5200 and 4300calBP was also greater than at present in the Tianshui Basin, western Loess Plateau. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. Source

Delitala A.M.S.,Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Fisica Delle Atmosfere e delle Idrosfere | Gallino S.,Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Fisica Delle Atmosfere e delle Idrosfere | Villa L.,Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Fisica Delle Atmosfere e delle Idrosfere | Lagouvardos K.,Institute for Environmental Research | Drago A.,University of Malta
Theoretical and Applied Climatology

The selection of ship routes based on modern weather forecasting is a mean of computing optimum shipping routes thereby increasing safety and comfort at sea, cutting down on transit time, and reducing fuel consumption. Further empirical research in the effectiveness of modern weather routing applications is required especially in applications concerning shorter routes in enclosed seas of limited geographical extent such as the Mediterranean Sea. The present study used two climatological simulations to test this state-of-the-art approach to ship routing. Simulations represented two theoretical routes: (1) a route between Italy and Greece and (2) a route between Cyprus and Italy. Both routes were analyzed across varying simulated climatic conditions and the results were compared with those of control routes. Furthermore, results were analyzed in terms of passenger and crew comfort, bunker consumption by ships, and time of crossing. The first simulation showed that weather routing would improve ship performance on 37% of days while the second simulation revealed that weather routing would support ship captains virtually all the time. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

Hadjinicolaou P.,The Cyprus Institute | Giannakopoulos C.,Institute for Environmental Research | Zerefos C.,Institute for Environmental Research | Lange M.A.,The Cyprus Institute | And 2 more authors.
Regional Environmental Change

We present climate change projections and apply indices of weather extremes for the Mediterranean island Cyprus using data from regional climate model (RCM) simulations driven by the IPCC A1B scenario within the ENSEMBLES project. Daily time-series of temperature and precipitation were used from six RCMs for a reference period 1976-2000 and for 2026-2050 ('future') for representative locations, applying a performance selection among neighboring model grid-boxes. The annual average temperatures of the model ensemble have a ±1. 5°C bias from the observations (negative for maximum and positive for minimum temperature), and the models underestimate annual precipitation totals by 4-17%. The climatological annual cycles for the observations fall within the 1σ range of the 6-model average, highlighting the strength of using multi-model output. We obtain reasonable agreement between models and observations for the temperature-related indices of extremes for the recent past, while the comparison is less good for the precipitation-related extremes. For the future, the RCM ensemble shows significant warming of 1°C in winter to 2°C in the summer for both maximum and minimum temperatures. Rainfall is projected to decrease by 2-8%, although this is not statistically significant. Our results indicate the shift of the mean climate to a warmer state, with a relatively strong increase in the warm extremes. The precipitation frequency is projected to decrease at the inland Nicosia and at the coastal Limassol, while the mountainous Saittas could experience more frequent 5-15mm/day rainfall. In future, very hot days are expected to increase by more than 2 weeks/year and tropical nights by 1 month/year. The annual number of consecutive dry days shows a statistically significant increase (of 9 days) in Limassol. These projected changes of the Cyprus climate may adversely affect ecosystems and the economy of the island and emphasize the need for adaptation strategies. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

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