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He F.-Z.,Institute for Endemic Disease Control | Guo M.,Institute for Endemic Disease Control | Danzengsangbu,Institute for Endemic Disease Control | Nimacangjue,Institute for Endemic Disease Control | Baimayangjin,Institute for Endemic Disease Control
Chinese Journal of Endemiology | Year: 2011

Objective: To find out the dynamics of drinking water borne endemic fluorosis in Tibet's, to evaluate the effect of control measures, and to provide a scientific basis for the timely adjustment of control strategies. Methods: During September to October 2009, according to the "2008 Central Government Special Funds to Subsidize Local Public Health in Drinking Water Borne Fluorosis in Tibet", Xigaze Xietongmen and Nyingchi Zayu were selected as project counties, three project villages were selected with simple random sampling method in each county, the functioning of water improvement projects, drinking water fluoride content, children's dental fluorosis and adult skeletal fluorosis were investigated. Water fluoride was detected by the "standard examination methods for drinking water the non-metallic targets" (GB/T 5750.6-2006) determination of fluoride; urinary fluoride was tested by ion selective electrode (WS/T 89-1996); dental fluorosis was diagnosed using Deans method; adult skeletal fluorosis was diagnosed by "endemic skeletal fluorosis clinical diagnostic criteria" (WS 192-2008). Results Mean water fluoride was 0.18-0.34 mg/L in drinking water changed areas, and 0.70-2.13 mg/L in not changed areas; prevalence of dental fluorosis of children 8-10 was 50.78% (65/128), dental fluorosis index was 1.04, mean urinary fluoride was 1.64 mg/L in drinking water changed areas ; prevalence of dental fluorosis of children 8-10 years old was 80.65% (25/31) in not changed areas, dental fluorosis index was 1.50, mean urinary fluoride of children was 2.08; adult clinical skeletal fluorosis was 38.7%(104/269) in drinking water changed areas, the mean urinary fluoride was 1.61 mg/L, prevalence of skeletal fluorosis was 15.4% (18/117) in not changed areas, mean urinary fluoride was 3.54 mg/L. Conclusions: The method of change the water to reduce fluoride decreases dental fluorosis to control levels, and severity is also reduced, urinary fluoride is decreased. However, the prevalence of skeletal fluorosis is higher than that of drinking water not changed areas. Source


He P.,Institute for Endemic Disease Control | An D.,Institute for Endemic Disease Control | Li D.-S.,Institute for Endemic Disease Control | Zhang B.-Y.,Institute for Endemic Disease Control | Liang Y.,Institute for Endemic Disease Control
Chinese Journal of Endemiology | Year: 2011

Objective: To investigate the usage of fluorine-proof iron stove in regions with coal-burning borne endemic fluorosis of Guizhou province and to provide scientific basis for the project management. Methods: According to "the local prevention programs against coal-burning borne endemic fluorosis-Guizhou iron stove usage survey scheme", in the 18 counties implemented the project of improving the iron stove from 2005 to 2008, 2 townships were selected randomly in each county of each project annually, 2 villages were selected in each township randomly, and 10 households were checked in each village. The project households were investigated using questionnaire of the related health knowledge and awareness as well as the satisfaction of the households. Results: Circled digit oneThe improvement rate of iron stove was 100.00% (1286/1286). Circled digit twoThe overall utilization rate of the improved stove was 94.09% (1210/1286), in which winter was 62.21% (800/1286) and annual was 31.88% (410/1286). Circled digit threeAmong the households that did not use the project stove, 46.05%(35/76) households was due to switch to other clean energy, in addition, 19.74%(15/76) was due to sell or send to other households, and 14.47% (11/76) was still used to use the open kitchen without the ventilating pipe, and still 13.16%(10/76) was due to high coal prices, and 6.58%(5/76) was due to that the improved stove can not meet the needs of life and no longer used. Circled digit fourAmong 1261 households investigated, households with damaged furnace was 24.58%(310/1261), and the parts damaged were mainly chimney (ventilating pipe) and the furnace core, accounting for 51.94%(161/310) and 29.03%(90/310), respectively. Repair rate of the damaged parts was 32.58%( 101/310). Circled digit fiveThe health knowledge rate was about 82.74% (1064/1286), and the satisfaction of the iron furnace was 88.65% (1140/1286). Conclusions: The improved stoves for the prevention of endemic fluorosis in the diseased area meet the people's living habits, and meet their basic livelihood needs. Most project households are still using the improved furnace. But we still need to further strengthen the project management and the health education intervention, establish and improve stove maintenance network, and reach the goal of sustainable control of coal-burning borne endemic fluorosis. Source


Gong H.-Q.,Institute for Endemic Disease Control | Guo M.,Institute for Endemic Disease Control | Dan Zeng S.-B.,Institute for Endemic Disease Control | He F.-Z.,Institute for Endemic Disease Control | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology | Year: 2010

Objective: To know the quality of iodized salt and the current situation of the salt coverage in Tibet, and to provide scientific basis for proposing proper prevention and control measures to Iodine dificiency disorders(IDD). Methods: In 2008, according to the "Sampling Methods of the Main Products in the Salt Industry", one batch fifteen salt samples were collected in iodized salt processing factory in Tibet. Five townships were chosen in each county based on 5 different directions of east, south, west, north and center. If the monitoring county has less than five townships, then all of the townships were sampled. In each township, four villages were selected with random sampling and importance sampling. In each township, 15 households were selected for salt collection. Results: A batch of 15 salt samples in a salt processing plant were tested, and all of them were qualified with salt iodine(34.6 ± 1.58) mg/kg. A total of 21 107 edible salt samples were tested, and 11 203 of them were qualified iodized salt. These results meant that the provincial iodized salt coverage rate was 53.08%. Shannan iodized salt coverage rate was 94.31% (3395/3600) which was the highest in Tibet. Those of Nagqu, Changdu, Ngari were lower, they were 29.84% (897/3006), 24.94% (823/3300) and 17.08% (205/1200), respectively. Conclusions: The quality of iodized salt in Tibet is up to the national standard, but the coverage rate of iodized salt is very low. We suggest that the strategy should be carried out according to the national overall program strategy and supplement iodized oil capsule for special groups. Source


Jia L.-H.,Institute for Endemic Disease Control | Ma J.,Institute for Endemic Disease Control | Du Y.-G.,Institute for Endemic Disease Control | Ma D.-R.,Institute for Endemic Disease Control | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology | Year: 2013

Objective: To find out the status of drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis and the effect of preventive measures in Hebei Province, so as to provide a basis to prevent and cure fluorosis. Methods: One affected county (city, district) with drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis was sampled in every city and 10 water improvement projects were investigated in that county. Three villages were taken out in every county. The operating state of the projects, the water fluoride content, and the dental fluorosis of children aged 8-12 and skeletal fluorosis of adults were investigated in these villages. Results: A total of 93 projects were investigated, among which 94.6%(88/93) were operating properly and the qualified rate(fluoride content ≤ 1.2 mg/L) of the projects was 54.84%(51/93). Among the 9 large projects, the water fluoride content of 7 projects exceeded 1.2 mg/L. A total of 23 villages with water improvement projects were investigated and only 43.4% (10/23) of them water fluoride content were lower than 1.2 mg/L. The dental fluorosis rate, the dental fluorosis index and the rate of skeletal fluorosis were 33.2% (532/1601), 0.74 and 5.7% (66/1155), respectively. In the 7 villages without water improvement projects, 2 of them exceeded 2.0 mg/L, but lower than and equal to 4.0 mg/L of water fluorosis and 5 of them were normal(<1.2 mg/L). The dental fluorosis rate, the dental fluorosis index and the rate of skeletal fluorosis were 33.4%(111/332), 0.72 and 2.9% (10/350), respectively. Conclutions: The qualified rate of water improvement projects of fluoride content ≤1.2 mg/L is low and the endemic fluorosis is still comparatively serious in Hebei Province. The progress of water improvement projects in the areas with endemic fluorosis should be accelerated and the quality of water improvement projects should be increased. Source


Lyu S.,Institute for Endemic Disease Control | Xu D.,Institute for Endemic Disease Control | Wang Y.,Institute for Endemic Disease Control | Du Y.,Institute for Endemic Disease Control | And 2 more authors.
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVE: Using the thyroid volume criteria for body surface area (BSA) to assess more precisely the effectiveness of removing iodized salt on the goiter status of children living in areas with excessive iodine in drinking water.METHODS: Three towns with median water iodine (MWI) of 150-300 µg/L were selected by simple random method in Hengshui city of Hebei province of China in May of 2010. A total of 452 and 459 children in the 3 towns were randomly selected to measure thyroid volume by ultrasound. Iodized salt was removed in July of 2010. In October of 2013, 459 children in these 3 towns were selected by simple random method to measure their thyroid volume by ultrasound again. Their goiter status was judged using the criteria of thyroid volume for BSA recommended by the WHO.RESULTS: After removing iodized salt, the overall BSA specific goiter prevalence in the three towns significantly decreased from 33% (149/452) to 6% (30/459) (χ² = 100.64, P < 0.001). The BSA specific goiter prevalence in 8, 9 and 10 year-old children decreased respectively from 38% (35/92), 31% (59/193) and 33% (55/167) to 6% (10/164), 7% (11/163) and 7% (9/132) (χ² values were 41.35, 31.66, 29.79, P < 0.001). The BSA specific goiter prevalence in boys and girls decreased from 34% (83/244) and 32% (66/208) to 6% (14/225) and 7% (16/234) (χ² values were 55.01, 45.06, P < 0.001) respectively.CONCLUSION: The BSA specific children's goiter prevalence decreased significantly after removing iodized salt from their diet in the HIA in Hebei province. Source

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