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Brunow S.,Institute for Employment Research | Grunder M.,VGN GmbH
Transportation | Year: 2013

There is a broad body of theoretical and empirical literature dealing with trip chaining behaviour. This paper adds to the literature while focusing on the impact of activity chaining on the duration of time spent on individual purposes. Two questions in particular are addressed: first, does an additional purpose added to a trip chain affect the duration of the activities included? Second, is there any pattern of included activities that explains differences in duration? Duration data models are employed using German data. We find evidence that the number of purposes influences duration significantly. Leisure, shopping and personal business activities are affected by the occurrence of obligatory activities (work, school/university). We cannot find any evidence that personal business or leisure activities influence the duration of shopping, whereas the opposite is supported. Therefore, in terms of daily activities, obligatory and shopping activities are superior to leisure and personal business. We conclude that activity chaining and especially the pattern of combined purposes affect the duration of activities allocated to single purposes while controlling for a wide range of other explanatory variables. The results can be used in transport and simulation models. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Bossler M.,Institute for Employment Research | Oberfichtner M.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg
Economic Inquiry | Year: 2016

We study the effect of deregulating weekday shop opening hours on employment in retailing. Using administrative data on all German food shops, a difference-in-differences analysis shows that relaxing restrictions on opening hours raised employment by 0.4 workers per shop corresponding to an increase by 4%. This effect is driven by part-time employment and employment in large shops, and it implies an increase by 0.1 workers per additional actual weekly opening hour. While the wage bill increased by less than employment, the deregulation seems not to have reduced earnings of workers already employed in retailing before the deregulation. © 2016 Western Economic Association International.

Tisch A.,Institute for Employment Research
European Journal of Ageing | Year: 2015

In the examination of older employees’ employability, one can distinguish between internal and external employability. Internal employability can be measured by individual employment stability, and external employability occurs when employees replace one employment relationship with another. Most studies focus on the personal skills and characteristics that are necessary to maintain employability. However, external factors also contribute to individual employability. Therefore, this study examines which organisational attributes of firms contribute to older employees’ employability in Germany. Taking firm and individual characteristics into account, the results of discrete-time survival models show that in specific organisational structures, older employees have higher internal employability. Accordingly, older employees are more likely to maintain employment in the service sector and in recruiting organisations facing (skilled) labour shortages. However, the results also indicate that financially investing organisations facilitate early labour market exits. With regard to older employees’ external employability, the results show only little evidence indicating an association between organisational attributes of firms and the likelihood of job change. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

How regional clusters - and the firms constituting it - respond to major economic shocks has only recently become the centre of attention in regional research. Taking the concept of 'adaptive resilience' as a point of departure, and using a mixed methods approach (firm survey, multivariate analysis, expert interviews), this study explores the response of cluster and non-cluster firms of the German mechanical engineering sector during the initial phase of the crisis (2008-2009). Findings show a significantly more positive employment trend in cluster firms than in non-cluster firms. Further analyses of the mechanisms that allow cluster firms to exhibit more resilience than other firms suggest that solidarity and altruism among regional actors were of particular importance in the beginning of the crisis. © 2013 RSAI.

Drechsler J.,Institute for Employment Research | Reiter J.P.,Duke University
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2011

Highlights: Statistical agencies can release simulated data as public use files. Nonparametric regression can be adapted to simulate such datasets. Synthesizers using CART, random forests, support vector machines were compared. CART shown to give highest data utility for acceptable disclosure risk. Nonparametric methods are easy to employ and hence appealing options for agencies. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Niebuhr A.,Institute for Employment Research | Granato N.,University of Mannheim | Haas A.,Institute for Employment Research | Hamann S.,Institute for Employment Research
Regional Studies | Year: 2012

Niebuhr A., Granato N., Haas A. and Hamann S. Does labour mobility reduce disparities between regional labour markets in Germany?, Regional Studies. Differences in regional labour market conditions are still pronounced in Germany, especially between the Eastern and Western parts. Traditional neoclassical models imply that labour mobility should reduce such disparities. In contrast, models that include externalities or selective migration suggest that regional differences may well increase due to the interregional migration of workers. The impact of labour mobility on regional disparities in Germany between 1995 and 2005 is investigated. Considering migration as well as commuting, effects on regional wages and unemployment are estimated. The results suggest that labour mobility tends to reduce disparities; however, significant effects on unemployment disparities only are found. © 2012 Copyright Regional Studies Association.

Brixy U.,Institute for Employment Research | Brixy U.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich
Regional Studies | Year: 2014

This study addresses the debate about whether start-ups increase regional productivity growth through such effects as the fostering of competition. A new longitudinal dataset at the establishment level for eastern and western Germany is used to analyse the impact of the number of start-ups and their survival on the growth of total factor productivity and employment. It is demonstrated that start-ups do affect regional productivity growth. But the impact is not proved continually: it varies between the manufacturing and the service sector and between the two parts of Germany. © 2014 Regional Studies Association.

Niebuhr A.,Institute for Employment Research
Papers in Regional Science | Year: 2010

Recent theoretical research deals with economic costs and benefits of cultural diversity related to immigration. However, empirical evidence regarding the impact of cultural diversity on economic performance is still scarce. We analyse the effect of cultural diversity of the labour force on patent applications for a cross-section of German regions. The results suggest that differences in knowledge and capabilities of workers from diverse cultural backgrounds enhance performance of regional R&D sectors. As regards innovation, the benefits of diversity seem to outweigh the costs caused, for example, by communication barriers. © 2009 the author(s). Journal compilation © 2009 RSAI.

vom Berge P.,Institute for Employment Research
Annals of Regional Science | Year: 2013

This paper develops a general equilibrium geographical economics model, which uses matching frictions on the labor market to generate regional unemployment disparities alongside the usual core-periphery pattern of industrial agglomeration. In the model, regional wage differentials do not only influence migration decisions of mobile workers, but also affect the bargaining process on local labor markets, leading to differences in vacancies and unemployment as well. In a setting with two regions, both higher or lower unemployment rates in the core region are possible equilibrium outcomes, depending on transport costs and the elasticity of substitution. Stylized facts suggest that both patterns are of empirical relevance. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Drechsler J.,Institute for Employment Research
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2010

Generating synthetic datasets is an innovative approach for data dissemination. Values at risk of disclosure or even the entire dataset are replaced with multiple draws from statistical models. The quality of the released data strongly depends on the ability of these models to capture important relationships found in the original data. Defining useful models for complex survey data can be difficult and cumbersome. One possible approach to reduce the modeling burden for data disseminating agencies is to rely on machine learning tools to reveal important relationships in the data. This paper contains an initial investigation to evaluate whether support vector machines could be utilized to develop synthetic datasets. The application is limited to categorical data but extensions for continuous data should be straight forward. I briefly describe the concept of support vector machines and necessary adjustments for synthetic data generation. I evaluate the performance of the suggested algorithm using a real dataset, the IAB Establishment Panel. The results indicate that some data utility improvements might be achievable using support vector machines. However, these improvements come at the price of an increased disclosure risk compared to standard parametric modeling and more research is needed to find ways for reducing the risk. Some ideas for achieving this goal are provided in the discussion at the end of the paper. © 2010 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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