Ljubljana, Slovenia
Ljubljana, Slovenia

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Slabe-Erker R.,Institute for Economic Research | Bartolj T.,Institute for Economic Research | Ogorevc M.,Institute for Economic Research | Kavas D.,Institute for Economic Research | Koman K.,Institute for Economic Research
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2017

The European Common Agricultural Policy still follows its primary goals, i.e. quality food at affordable prices and a decent standard of living for farmers, fifty years after its adoption. Moreover, this policy adapts to the changing needs of society and the new challenges, mostly preservation of the environment, nature and biodiversity in rural areas. Although the Common Agricultural Policy receives the largest share of European budget, the funds are decreasing over time, especially direct payments, which aim to provide basic income support to farmers in the European Union. On the other hand, agri-environmental payments are gaining importance. Policy decision-makers should be interested in the question of impacts of growing eco-conditionality of agricultural spending. New insights would help them to be successful in achieving the goals of sustainable agriculture. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the impacts of production support payments and rural development payments on the quality of groundwater. We use the small EU country Slovenia as an example. The baseline indicators are the level of nitrates and pesticides in groundwater, while the impacts were estimated using spatial error model. The results show that direct payments, coupled subsidies and investment grants raise the level of pesticides in groundwater, but do not have any statistically significant impact on the level of nitrates in groundwater. Furthermore, we did not find any statistically significant effects of agri-environmental payments on decrease of groundwater pollution with nitrates. However, our findings revealed that agri-environmental payments are effective in reducing pesticides in groundwater, although only to a limited extent. These results imply a problem of insufficient targeting of agri-environmental measures on the one hand, and suggest that greening of direct payments is necessary and entirely justified. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Murovec N.,Institute for Economic Research | Erker R.S.,Institute for Economic Research | Prodan I.,University of Ljubljana
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2012

The main purpose of this study is to provide the needed additional quantitative evidence regarding the introduction of environmental technologies, and to increase the possibility for generalization and thus policy application of conclusions. To achieve that purpose, a conceptual model is developed, and then tested on a large database of firms from various industries with the use of structural equation modeling. The results show that policy measures, past environmental investments, the importance of environmental technologies for customers and the firm performance have a positive effect on environmental investments. Furthermore, the results show that policy measures are a second-order three-factor construct. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Verbic M.,University of Ljubljana | Slabe-Erker R.,Institute for Economic Research | Klun M.,University of Ljubljana
Land Use Policy | Year: 2016

The article presents an economic valuation of the Ljubljanica riverbanks area, which is an urban cultural landscape with distinct qualities of international importance. For this purpose, we combined a classical contingent valuation with a closed-form version of discrete choice method, where the protest responses have been removed. By using econometric analysis, we obtained the willingness-to-pay (WTP) value and established its determinants. It was ascertained that residents derived more utility from implementation of the targeted development scenario than visitors. Thus, a discriminatory contribution scheme similar to the one with respect to the mean WTP could supply substantial revenue for further targeted development, while still providing ample consumer surplus for both residents and visitors. The present analysis represents one of the method's very few applications to urban landscape in Central and Eastern European countries. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Klemenc-Ketis Z.,University of Maribor | Bacovnik-Jansa U.,University of Ljubljana | Ogorevc M.,Institute for Economic Research | Kersnik J.,University of Ljubljana
Ulusal Travma ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND Traumatic brain injury is a major public health problem due to high mortality and morbidity among survivors. METHODS We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with severe traumatic brain injury. We recorded the attending physician's evaluation of the patient's consciousness, the patient's demographics, routine physical measurements, and medical interventions. We used Glasgow Coma Scale and Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale. RESULTS We included 60 patients (83.3% males, mean age: 49.5 years). The Glasgow Coma Scale score was 4.8±1.9 and the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale score was 2.9±2.5 points. Linear regression for higher Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale score explained 59.8% of the variance and revealed the duration of hospital stay and the presence of epidural hematoma as significant predictors. The classification tree for the higher Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale score revealed the following variables to be important: the duration of hospital stay, Glasgow Coma Scale score, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, surgery, response time of out-of-hospital emergency team, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fall, and basis fracture. CONCLUSION Standardized inpatient protocol on monitoring, intervention and outcome recording should be adopted to make future comparisons more useful and to promote benchmarking between trauma centers in order to improve care for patients with severe traumatic brain injury.


PubMed | University of Ljubljana and Institute for Economic Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zdravstveno varstvo | Year: 2016

Population ageing has significant effects on societies. The organization of care for dependent old people is one of the key issues for ageing societies. The majority of care for homebound dependent old people in Slovenia is still performed by informal carers, even though the use of formal services has been increasing over the last 20 years. The proportion and characteristics of people with unmet needs are important for the development of long term care social policy.The SHARE (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe) survey was used to assess the determinants of care arrangements and of unmet needs of the aging population in Slovenia. Multinomial regression analysis was used to evaluate individual and contextual determinants of care arrangements and unmet needs.The proportion of older people with unmet needs is 4%. As expected, needs (Functional impairment OR=4.89, P=0.000, Depression OR=2.59, P=0.001) were the most important determinant, followed by the predisposing factor age (age OR 1.15, P=0.000) and two enabling factors, namely:community setting and availability of informal care within household (Urban areas OR=.47, P=0.021; Household size 3+ OR=2.11, P=0.030).This study showed that there are a proportion of older people in Slovenia with severe needs for care, which are being unmet. As shown by the importance of enabling factors, social policy should encourage the development of formal services in rural areas and elaborate policy measures for informal carers.


Gachter S.,University of Nottingham | Gachter S.,Institute for Economic Research | Herrmann B.,University of Nottingham | Thoni C.,University of St. Gallen
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper' we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a)' who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities. © 2010 The Royal Society.


PubMed | Bocconi University and Institute for Economic Research
Type: | Journal: Health economics | Year: 2017

Medical devices (MDs) have distinctive features, such as incremental innovation, dynamic pricing, the learning curve and organisational impact, that need to be considered when they are evaluated. This paper investigates how MDs have been assessed in practice, in order to identify methodological gaps that need to be addressed to improve the decision-making process for their adoption. We used the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) checklist supplemented by some additional categories to assess the quality of reporting and consideration of the distinctive features of MDs. Two case studies were considered: transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) representing an emerging technology and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) representing a mature technology. Economic evaluation studies published as journal articles or within Health Technology Assessment reports were identified through a systematic literature review. A total of 19 studies on TAVI and 41 studies on ICDs were analysed. Learning curve was considered in only 16% of studies on TAVI. Incremental innovation was more frequently mentioned in the studies of ICDs, but its impact was considered in only 34% of the cases. Dynamic pricing was the most recognised feature but was empirically tested in less than half of studies of TAVI and only 32% of studies on ICDs. Finally, organisational impact was considered in only one study of ICDs and in almost all studies on TAVI, but none of them estimated its impact. By their very nature, most of the distinctive features of MDs cannot be fully assessed at market entry. However, their potential impact could be modelled, based on the experience with previous MDs, in order to make a preliminary recommendation. Then, well-designed post-market studies could help in reducing uncertainties and make policymakers more confident to achieve conclusive recommendations. 2017 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Rupel V.P.,Institute for Economic Research | Ogorevc M.,Institute for Economic Research
Value in Health Regional Issues | Year: 2014

Objectives: The main objective of this article was to explore the use of the patient evaluation of health states in determining the quality of health care program provision among health care providers. The other objectives were to explore the effect of size and status of health care providers on patient-reported outcomes. Methods: The EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire was used in four health care programs (hip replacement, hernia surgery, carpal tunnel release, and veins surgery) to evaluate patients' health states before and after the procedure, following carefully prepared instructions. Data were collected for a single year, 2011. The number of questionnaires filled by patients was 165 for hip replacement, 551 for hernia surgery, 437 for vein surgery, and 158 for carpal tunnel release. The data were analyzed using linear regression model and the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire value set for Slovenia. Differences between providers were determined using the Tukey test. Potential quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained for all four programs were calculated for the optimal allocation of patients among providers. Results: There are significant differences among health care providers in the share of patients who reported positive changes in health care status as well as in average improvement in patient-reported outcomes in all four programs. In the case of optimal allocation, each patient undergoing hip replacement would gain 2.25 QALYs, each patient undergoing hernia surgery would gain 0.83 QALY, each patient undergoing veins surgery would gain 0.36 QALY, and each patient undergoing carpal tunnel release would gain 0.78 QALY. Conclusions: The analysis exposed differences in average health state valuations across four health care programs among providers. Further data on patient-reported outcomes for more than a single year should be collected. On the basis of trend data, further analysis to determine the possible causes for differences should be conducted and the possibility to use this approach for measuring health care providers' performance and its use in contracting should be explored. © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR).


Aichner T.,Institute for Economic Research
International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management | Year: 2012

Mass Customization (MC) companies can not sell their products in traditional stores. This implies that customers take their purchase decision on a different level, the Zero Moment of Truth (ZMOT). Companies need to know when and where this happens, how the decision making process of their potential customers works and how it is influenced by product-related concepts such as purchase intention, product knowledge and product involvement. This paper gives an answer to these questions and provides implications for marketing managers of MC companies. Finally, a definition of the ZMOT in MC is formulated.


Marusic D.,Health Institute Celjenje | Prevolnik Rupel V.,Institute for Economic Research
Zdravstveno Varstvo | Year: 2016

In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country. © 2016 National Institute of Public Health, Slovenia.

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