Institute for Ecology

Institute for Ecology

SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Khaliq I.,Center for Biological Diversity | Bohning-Gaese K.,Center for Biological Diversity | Prinzinger R.,Institute for Ecology | Pfenninger M.,Center for Biological Diversity | Hof C.,Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Center nckenberganlage 25Frankfurt60325 Germany
Global Ecology and Biogeography | Year: 2017

Aim: To understand how climatic conditions influence the geographical distributions of species and their potential responses to climate change, we investigated the relationships between the thermal tolerances of species and the size and limits of their distributions. We tested two hypotheses for endotherms: the climatic variability hypothesis, which predicts increases in range size with increasing breadth of thermal tolerance, and the climatic extreme hypothesis, which predicts that range limits are related to thermal tolerance limits. Furthermore, we tested whether these relationships differ between temperate and tropical areas. Location: Global. Time period: Present. Major taxa studied: Birds and mammals. Methods: We compiled data on thermal tolerances that had been measured in physiological experiments for 453 endothermic species, along with information on geographical ranges and climatic conditions. We applied phylogenetic generalized least square regressions to test for relationships between thermal tolerance and (a) range size or limits and (b) breadth and extremes of the climatic conditions that each species experiences across its distribution. Results: We found that range size was not related to the breadth thermal tolerance for endotherms. However, the range limits at high latitudes as well as the minimum temperatures experienced by species were closely related to the physiological cold tolerances of species. These relationships were particularly strong in temperate regions, but these patterns were not found in the tropics. Main conclusions: Our results are inconsistent with the predictions of the climatic variability hypothesis, but are in line with the predictions of the climatic extreme hypothesis. Furthermore, the factors determining species distributions do not appear to be the same in tropical and temperate regions. Our study emphasizes the need to combine spatially explicit distribution models with information from physiological experiments in order to capture regional differences and improve predictions of the responses of species to climate change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Kuhn T.,Institute for Ecology | Hailer F.,Biodiversity and Climate Research Center | Palm H.W.,University of Rostock | Klimpel S.,Institute for Ecology
Folia Parasitologica | Year: 2013

Here, we present the ITS ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence data on 330 larvae of nematodes of the genus Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 collected from 26 different bony fish species from 21 sampling locations and different climatic zones. New host records are provided for Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) sensu stricto (s.s.) and A. pegreffii Campana-Rouget et Biocca, 1955 from Anoplopoma fimbria (Pallas) (Santa Barbara, East Pacific), A. typica (Diesing, 1860) from Caesio cuning (Bloch), Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier) and Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus) (Indonesia, West Pacific), A. simplex s.s. from Cololabis saira (Brevoort) (Hawaii, Central Pacific), A. simplex C of Nascetti et al. (1986) from Sebastolobus alascanus Bean (Santa Barbara, East Pacific) and A. physeteris Baylis, 1923 from Synaphobranchus kaupii Johnson (Namibia, East Atlantic). Comparison with host records from 60 previous molecular studies of Anisakis species reveals the teleost host range so far recorded for the genus. Perciform (57 species) and gadiform (21) fishes were the most frequently infected orders, followed by pleuronectiforms (15) and scorpaeniforms (15). Most commonly infected fish families were Scombridae (12), Gadidae (10), Carangidae (8) and Clupeidae (7), with Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus) alone harbouring eight Anisakis species. Different intermediate host compositions implicate differing life cycles for the so far molecularly identified Anisakis sibling species. © Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre ASCR.


Podgornik M.,Science and Research Center Koper | Pintar M.,University of Ljubljana | Miklavcic M.B.,Science and Research Center Koper | Miklavcic M.B.,Institute for Ecology | Bandelj D.,University of Primorska
Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering | Year: 2017

Due to increased occurrence and intensity of agricultural droughts in humid Mediterranean regions, monitored irrigation is becoming an increasingly inevitable element of agricultural practice. To determine the impact of different irrigation regimes on olive tree (Olea europaea L.) growth and crop yield, and of the olive oil production and biophenol content, a 3-year study was conducted in an olive grove located in a relatively humid region of southwestern Slovenia. The mean olive production from trees under full irrigation (replacement of 100% crop evapotranspiration) was significantly higher than those that were only rain fed or were under deficit irrigation (replacement of 33 and 66% crop evapotranspiration). There were no significant differences in total biophenol contents of the olive oil across these irrigation treatments. These irrigation effects can be explained according to the levels of precipitation throughout the growing season. Despite the positive effects of rainfall on these parameters, the mean olive oil yield of the rain-fed olives was about 30% lower than that for the deficit irrigation treatments. © 2017 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Alfreider A.,Institute for Ecology | Baumer A.,Institute for Ecology | Bogensperger T.,University of InnsbruckInnsbruck Austria | Posch T.,Limnological Station | Summerer M.,Institute for Ecology
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2017

While mechanisms of different carbon dioxide (CO2) assimilation pathways in chemolithoautotrohic prokaryotes are well understood for many isolates under laboratory conditions, the ecological significance of diverse CO2 fixation strategies in the environment is mostly unexplored. Six stratified freshwater lakes were chosen to study the distribution and diversity of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle, the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle, and the recently discovered archaeal 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate (HP/HB) pathway. Eleven primer sets were used to amplify and sequence genes coding for selected key enzymes in the three pathways. Whereas the CBB pathway with different forms of RubisCO (IA, IC and II) was ubiquitous and related to diverse bacterial taxa, encompassing a wide range of potential physiologies, the rTCA cycle in Epsilonproteobacteria and Chloribi was exclusively detected in anoxic water layers. Nitrifiying Nitrosospira and Thaumarchaeota, using the rTCA and HP/HB cycle respectively, are important residents in the aphotic and (micro-)oxic zone of deep lakes. Both taxa were of minor importance in surface waters and in smaller lakes characterized by an anoxic hypolimnion. Overall, this study provides a first insight on how different CO2 fixation strategies and chemical gradients in lakes are associated to the distribution of chemoautotrophic prokaryotes with different functional traits. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Colditz R.R.,National Commission for the Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity CONABIO | Ressl R.A.,National Commission for the Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity CONABIO | Bonilla-Moheno M.,Institute for Ecology
2015 8th International Workshop on the Analysis of Multitemporal Remote Sensing Images, Multi-Temp 2015 | Year: 2015

The number of studies exploring long data records have increased in recent years and trend analysis has become a frequently-used analysis approach. This study tested parametric and non-parametric regression methods for trend estimation in MODIS NDVI data. The full record of 15 years of MODIS data from the Terra satellite was filtered to exclude clouds, shadow or other data of inferior quality from this analysis. Yearly averages and dry and wet season means were analyzed using linear least-squares and Theil-Sen regression methods. Corresponding statistical tests (F-test and Mann-Kendall test) indicated the significance of each regression model. Consistent spatial patterns were found in MODIS NDVI trend analysis which match with local knowledge and studies exploring socioeconomic, environmental and demographic factors of vegetation and land cover change in Mexico. Significant (p<0.05) positive trends in NDVI were found in the states of Chihuahua, northern Durango and Nuevo Leon due to increased woody coverage or Oaxaca due to vegetation densification. Negative trends occur in Sonora and Coahuila due to climate variability and around larger cities. Seasonal trend analysis helped interpreting and discerning anthropogenic from natural drivers. © 2015 IEEE.


Purcaro G.,University of Udine | Moret S.,University of Udine | Bucar-Miklavcic M.,Institute for Ecology | Conte L.S.,University of Udine
Journal of Separation Science | Year: 2012

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous compounds released in the environment by different sources. The aim of the present work was to validate a solid-phase extraction (SPE) and a rapid ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic (UHPLC) method for the analysis of PAHs in a passive environmental sampler, namely a Dacron® (the commercial name of a synthetic fiber based on polyethylene terephthalate) textile. The elution temperature was optimized to improve the resolution of early-eluted compounds, namely acenaphthene (Ac) and fluorene (F). The UHPLC method lasts about 10 min and showed good linearity for all the 16 PAHs considered, with regression coefficients over 0.99. Recoveries, limits of detection (LODs), and limits of quantification (LOQs) of the SPE method were well within the performance criteria fixed by the Regulation n. 836/2011, namely 0.3 and 0.9 μg/kg, respectively. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Munster J.,Institute for Ecology | Klimpel S.,Institute for Ecology | Fock H.O.,Thuenen Institute of Sea Fisheries | MacKenzie K.,University of Aberdeen | Kuhn T.,Institute for Ecology
Parasitology Research | Year: 2015

Parasites, being an integral part of every ecosystem and trophically transmitted along the food webs, can provide detailed insights into the structure of food webs and can close the information gap between short-term stomach content analyses and long-term fish otolith analyses. They are useful for tracking ontogenetic shifts in the host’s diet, the occurrence of specific organisms or migratory behaviour of their hosts, even in inaccessible environments. In the present study, stomach content analyses and parasitological examinations were performed on 70 Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, one of the most important high-level predators of small fish in the North Atlantic, caught during one research vessel cruise from West and East Greenlandic waters. Analyses revealed significant differences in fish size with higher values for East Greenland (average total length (TL) of 50.5 cm) compared to West Greenland (average TL of 33.3 cm). Clear differences were also present in prey and parasite composition. Crustacea was the main food source for all fish (IRI = 10082.70), while the importance of teleosts increased with fish size. With a prevalence of 85 % in West Greenland and 100 % in East Greenland, Nematoda were the most abundant parasite group. The results indicate an ontogenetic shift in the diet, which are discussed in the context of the common distribution theory, stock dynamics and migratory behaviour. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Jungmeier M.,Klagenfurt University | Kostl T.,Institute for Ecology | Lange S.,CEO of E.C.O. Germany | Bliem M.,University of Graz
Eco.mont | Year: 2013

This article provides an overview on BRIMNockberge, a research project dedicated to the development of an integrated monitoring system aimed at displaying the performance of the Carinthian part of the newly established Biosphere Reserve (BR) Salzburger Lungau & Kärntner Nockberge. Special emphasis has been placed on compactness and slenderness in this approach. Twelve indicators have been identified that are best suited to represent the social, economic and ecological development of the region, as well as the management's performance. The whole process of developing indicators has been implemented in close collaboration and communication with local stakeholders and experts to achieve maximum public acceptance and effectiveness of the monitoring approach. A specific online database has been designed to store the collected data. It allows an easy and stringent presentation of the results. A test run was carried out within the project. Over the years, the annual collection of data will allow detecting relevant trends in the region. © E.C.O. Austria.


News Article | December 10, 2015
Site: news.mit.edu

A key concern at the Paris climate negotiations (COP21) is to find a fair, effective, and economically viable way to curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in developing countries, which are expected to vastly outpace those produced in developed countries in the coming decades. One approach, adopted in previous United Nations climate summits in Copenhagen and Cancun and now implemented in Paris, is to encourage each country to craft its own climate mitigation policy based on local conditions and challenges. Another strategy, favored by many economists as the best way to reduce global emissions but politically challenging to implement, is to base each country’s contribution to international climate mitigation efforts on a “one-size-fits-all” policy such as a universal carbon price or emissions reduction target. In a study in the journal Energy Economics, researchers at the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change explored the implications of establishing uniform emissions reduction policies in Brazil and Mexico, which have the two largest economies in Latin America and are well-positioned to engage the developing world in climate negotiations. Using the MIT Economic Projection and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model to determine the economic impact of several climate policy scenarios on Brazil and Mexico between 2020 and 2050, they showed that imposing the same carbon prices or GHG emissions targets on each country would cost about twice as much in Mexico as in Brazil. In Mexico, the largest contributor to GHG emissions is the energy sector; in Brazil, it’s the agriculture sector. Due to differences in energy and land use emissions sources, the same climate policies cost much higher in Mexico under scenarios ranging from extending existing commitments made in Copenhagen and Cancun to 2050, to a more stringent policy aimed at halving all GHGs by 2050 relative to 2010 levels. In the latter scenario, GDP losses between 2020 and 2050 range from 4 percent to 11 percent for Mexico and 0 percent to 4 percent for Brazil. These findings highlight the need for climate policies that account for individual countries’ natural resources, emissions profiles, and economic structures. Even among countries at similar levels of economic development such as Brazil and Mexico, GHG mitigation efforts come with significantly different costs and benefits that cannot be glossed over in a one-size-fits-all policy. “We expect our research to assist in international climate negotiations and policy design by better explaining the costs and conditions that influence different countries’ positions,” says the study’s lead author, Claudia Octaviano, a recent Joint Program postdoc who now serves as general coordinator for climate change and low-carbon development at the National Institute for Ecology and Climate Change of Mexico. “This type of analysis may also assist developing countries in crafting appropriate mitigation actions by comparing the implications of proposed policies with other countries.” To produce their findings, Octaviano and her co-authors — Joint Program Deputy Director Sergey Paltsev and research associate Angelo Gurgel — updated the EPPA model to incorporate the most recent emissions inventories in Mexico and Brazil, and key national initiatives such as Brazil’s policy to reduce deforestation. Policy scenarios were developed by the Latin America Modeling Project and the Integrated Climate Modeling and Capacity Building Project in Latin America. The EPPA model allowed for a comprehensive analysis of all sectors of the global economy and all GHGs, providing a one-stop-shop for policy design and comparison. “Because we represent the global economy in a single framework, we can capture responses that other models ignore, including the trade implications of climate policy,” Octaviano explains. “We also have the capability to consider changes in land use, allowing us to model Brazil’s deforestation policy within the same framework.” The study was funded by the Mario Molina Center, the National Council for Science and Technology of Mexico, the National Council for Research of Brazil, the European Union and sponsors of the MIT Joint Program.


News Article | December 11, 2015
Site: www.theenergycollective.com

Study shows significant differences in costs associated with curbing greenhouse gas emissions in Brazil and Mexico. Mark Dwortzan | MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change A key concern at the Paris climate negotiations (COP21) is to find a fair, effective, and economically viable way to curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in developing countries, which are expected to vastly outpace those produced in developed countries in the coming decades. One approach, adopted in previous United Nations climate summits in Copenhagen and Cancun and now implemented in Paris, is to encourage each country to craft its own climate mitigation policy based on local conditions and challenges. Another strategy, favored by many economists as the best way to reduce global emissions but politically challenging to implement, is to base each country’s contribution to international climate mitigation efforts on a “one-size-fits-all” policy such as a universal carbon price or emissions reduction target. In a study in the journal Energy Economics, researchers at the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change explored the implications of establishing uniform emissions reduction policies in Brazil and Mexico, which have the two largest economies in Latin America and are well-positioned to engage the developing world in climate negotiations. Using the MIT Economic Projection and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model to determine the economic impact of several climate policy scenarios on Brazil and Mexico between 2020 and 2050, they showed that imposing the same carbon prices or GHG emissions targets on each country would cost about twice as much in Mexico as in Brazil. In Mexico, the largest contributor to GHG emissions is the energy sector; in Brazil, it’s the agriculture sector. Due to differences in energy and land use emissions sources, the same climate policies cost much higher in Mexico under scenarios ranging from extending existing commitments made in Copenhagen and Cancun to 2050, to a more stringent policy aimed at halving all GHGs by 2050 relative to 2010 levels. In the latter scenario, GDP losses between 2020 and 2050 range from 4 percent to 11 percent for Mexico and 0 percent to 4 percent for Brazil. These findings highlight the need for climate policies that account for individual countries’ natural resources, emissions profiles, and economic structures. Even among countries at similar levels of economic development such as Brazil and Mexico, GHG mitigation efforts come with significantly different costs and benefits that cannot be glossed over in a one-size-fits-all policy. “We expect our research to assist in international climate negotiations and policy design by better explaining the costs and conditions that influence different countries’ positions,” says the study’s lead author, Claudia Octaviano, a recent Joint Program postdoc who now serves as general coordinator for climate change and low-carbon development at the National Institute for Ecology and Climate Change of Mexico. “This type of analysis may also assist developing countries in crafting appropriate mitigation actions by comparing the implications of proposed policies with other countries.” To produce their findings, Octaviano and her co-authors — Joint Program Deputy Director Sergey Paltsev and research associate Angelo Gurgel — updated the EPPA model to incorporate the most recent emissions inventories in Mexico and Brazil, and key national initiatives such as Brazil’s policy to reduce deforestation. Policy scenarios were developed by the Latin America Modeling Project and the Integrated Climate Modeling and Capacity Building Project in Latin America. The EPPA model allowed for a comprehensive analysis of all sectors of the global economy and all GHGs, providing a one-stop-shop for policy design and comparison. “Because we represent the global economy in a single framework, we can capture responses that other models ignore, including the trade implications of climate policy,” Octaviano explains. “We also have the capability to consider changes in land use, allowing us to model Brazil’s deforestation policy within the same framework.” The study was funded by the Mario Molina Center, the National Council for Science and Technology of Mexico, the National Council for Research of Brazil, the European Union and sponsors of the MIT Joint Program.

Loading Institute for Ecology collaborators
Loading Institute for Ecology collaborators