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Do D.P.,University of South Carolina | Beam Dowd J.,York College - The City University of New York | Beam Dowd J.,Institute for Demographic Research | Ranjit N.,University of Texas at Austin | And 3 more authors.
Psychosomatic Medicine | Year: 2010

Objective: To examine whether the psychological traits of hopelessness and depressive symptoms are related to endothelial dysfunction. Methods: Data are derived from a subsample of 434 respondents in the 2001 to 2003 Chicago Community Adult Health Study, a population-based survey designed to study the impact of psychological attributes, neighborhood environment, and socioeconomic circumstances on adults aged ≥18 years. Circulating biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction, including e-selectin, p-selectin, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (s-ICAM1) were obtained from serum samples. Hopelessness was measured by responses to two questions, and depressive symptoms were measured by an 11-item version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Multivariate regression models tested whether continuous levels of the biomarkers (natural log transformed) were associated with levels of hopelessness and depressive symptoms separately and concurrently. Results: In age-and sex-adjusted models, hopelessness showed significant positive linear associations with s-ICAM1. In contrast, there was no significant linear association between hopelessness and e-selectin and p-selectin. Adjustment for clinical risk factors, including systolic pressure, chronic health conditions, smoking, and body mass index, did not substantively alter these associations. Results from similar models for depressive symptoms did not reveal any association with the three biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction. The associations between hopelessness and e-selectin and s-ICAM1 were robust to the inclusion of adjustments for depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Negative psychosocial traits may influence cardiovascular outcomes partially through their impact on the early stages of atherosclerosis, and specific psychosocial traits, such as hopelessness, may play a more direct role in this process than overall depressive symptoms. © 2010 by the American Psychosomatic Society. Source


Smailyte G.,Vilnius University | Smailyte G.,Institute for Demographic Research | Jasilionis D.,Institute for Demographic Research | Jasilionis D.,Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research | And 4 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology | Year: 2013

Background: This study aims to estimate suicide risk and its socio-demographic determinants among cancer patients in the country showing the highest suicide rates among developed countries. Methods: The study is based on a unique census-linked dataset based on the linkages between the records from death and cancer registers and the 2001 population census records. Standardized mortality ratios for suicide (SMRs) were calculated for patients diagnosed with cancer in Lithuania between April 6, 2001 and December 31, 2009, relative to suicide rates in the general population. Results: We found that the relative suicide risk was elevated for both males and females, with SMRs of 1.43 (95% CI 1.23-1.66) and 1.32 (95% CI 0.95-1.80), respectively. This relationship for females became statistically significant and stronger after excluding skin cancers. The highest suicide risks were observed at older ages and during the period shortly after the diagnosis. The groups showing an increased suicide risk include lower educated, non-married, and rural male patients. Conclusion: The results of our study point to inadequacies of the health care system in dealing with mental health problems of cancer patients. Interventions allowing early detection of depression or suicidal ideation may help to prevent suicide among cancer patients in Lithuania. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Smailyte G.,Vilnius University | Smailyte G.,Institute for Demographic Research | Jasilionis D.,Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research | Ambrozaitiene D.,Statistics Lithuania | Stankuniene V.,Institute for Demographic Research
Cancer Epidemiology | Year: 2012

Background: The aim of this study is to describe associations between incidence and mortality by major cancer sites and education in Lithuania. Methods: The study is based on the linkage between all records of the 2001 population census and all records from Lithuanian Cancer Registry (cancer incidence) and Statistics Lithuania (deaths) for the period between 1 July 2001 and 31 December 2004. Education-specific incidence and mortality rate ratios were estimated by means of multivariate Poisson regression models. Results: We found both the positive and inverse educational gradients in cancer incidence and mortality. The risk of developing cancer (all sites) was lower among men and women with the lowest education, whereas cancer mortality was higher among lower educated men. The higher educational level was also associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer among men and an increased risk of breast cancer among women. However, prostate cancer mortality was the highest in the lowest education group, whereas breast cancer mortality among women did not show any statistically significant differences. Lower educated men had significantly higher incidence and mortality due to lung and stomach cancers. Strikingly high incidence and mortality due to cervix cancer was observed among women with secondary and lower than secondary education. Conclusion: The results point to inequalities in early diagnosis and survival from cancer and failures ensuring equal access to medical care. Further more in-depth studies are needed in order to understand the nature and determinants of these inequalities. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Jasilionis D.,Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research | Stankuniene V.,Institute for Demographic Research | Ambrozaitiene D.,Statistics Lithuania | Jdanov D.A.,Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research | Shkolnikov V.M.,Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health | Year: 2012

Background This study examines discrepancies between census and death registry information in the reporting of the ethnicity of the deceased in Lithuania and shows how these reporting differences influence estimates of mortality inequality by ethnicity. Methods This study uses a census-linked dataset provided by Statistics Lithuania. The data include all deaths and population exposures between 1 July 2001 and 31 December 2004. The information on the ethnicity of the deceased was available from both the census and the death records. The Poisson regression was applied (1) to measure the effects of socio-demographic variables on the misreporting of ethnicity on death records and (2) to estimate mortality rate ratios by ethnicity based on census-linked and unlinked data. Results The death-record-based information on ethnicity under-reports the deaths of people of Russian, Polish and other ethnicities and over-reports the deaths of people of Lithuanian ethnicity. This leads both to the underestimation of mortality in the three ethnic minority groups and to biased mortality rate ratios. The misreporting is higher in death records for women, persons younger than 80 years, divorced persons, urban residents and those dying from ill-defined causes. Conclusion Studies based on unlinked data may provide biased estimates of ethnic mortality differences. Source

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