Institute for Crop Science and Plant Breeding

Schönau am Königssee, Germany

Institute for Crop Science and Plant Breeding

Schönau am Königssee, Germany
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Meiners J.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Debener T.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Schweizer G.,Institute for Crop Science and Plant Breeding | Winkelmann T.,Leibniz University of Hanover
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2011

Helleborus is a genus of herbaceous perennials belonging to the family Ranunculaceae. Within this genus six sections with a total of 22 species are found. The largest section Helleborastrum contains 16 species for which genetic relationships are still unclear. This study represents the first genetic analysis in the genus Helleborus, including the two newly described species H. liguricus and H. abruzzicus based on multilocus amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers with a genome-wide distribution in combination with nuclear DNA content data. Chromosome analyses of roots tips revealed a number of 2. n= 32 for the selected species, which was congruent with previous observations. The nuclear DNA content of Helleborus was estimated by flow cytometry applying propidium iodide staining and varied between 18 and 33. pg/2C, depending on the species. For AFLP analyses, 19 out of the 22 Helleborus species were studied using 10 AFLP primer combinations, resulting in a total of 1109 polymorphic bands among all species including the outgroup. The genetic distances between species varied between 0.034 and 0.330. Based on genetic distances a phenogram using the Neighbor-joining cluster method with bootstrap analysis was calculated. The results support the previously suggested division of the genus into six sections and thereby approve AFLP data to be applicable for phenetic analyses. Moreover, this genetic information is significant for the development of future Helleborus breeding strategies. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Gruber H.,Institute for Crop Science and Plant Breeding | Gruber H.,TU Munich | Gruber H.,Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority | Paul V.,TU Munich | And 3 more authors.
Transgenic Research | Year: 2012

Cultivation of genetically modified maize (Bt-maize; event MON810) producing recombinant δ-endotoxin Cry1Ab, leads to introduction of the insecticidal toxin into soil by way of root exudates and plant residues. This study investigated the fate of Cry1Ab in soil under long-term Bt-maize cultivation in an experimental field trial performed over nine growing seasons on four South German field sites cultivated with MON810 and its near isogenic non Bt-maize variety. Cry1Ab protein was quantified in soil (<2 mm size) using an in-house validated ELISA method. The assay was validated according to the criteria specified in European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The assay enabled quantification of Cry1Ab protein at a decision limit (CCα) of 2. 0 ng Cry1Ab protein g -1 soil with analytical recovery in the range 49. 1-88. 9%, which was strongly correlated with clay content. Cry1Ab protein was only detected on one field site at concentrations higher than the CCα, with 2. 91 and 2. 57 ng Cry1Ab protein g -1 soil in top and lower soil samples collected 6 weeks after the eighth growing season. Cry1Ab protein was never detected in soil sampled in the spring before the next farming season at any of the four experimental sites. No experimental evidence for accumulation or persistence of Cry1Ab protein in different soils under long-term Bt-maize cultivation can be drawn from this field study. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Wenzel A.,TU Munich | Frank T.,TU Munich | Reichenberger G.,Institute for Crop Science and Plant Breeding | Herz M.,Institute for Crop Science and Plant Breeding | Engel K.-H.,TU Munich
Metabolomics | Year: 2015

The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of drought stress on the metabolite profiles of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain against the background of natural variability depending on growing location and season. Six barley genotypes were field-grown (i) under normal weather conditions at two different sites and (ii) under induced drought conditions, using a Rain-Out-Shelter. Both trials were performed in three consecutive seasons (2010–2012). Samples were subjected to a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolite profiling procedure, based on the extraction and fractionation of a broad spectrum of low molecular weight metabolites ranging from lipophilic (e.g. triglyceride-derived fatty acids, free fatty acids, fatty alcohols, sterols) to hydrophilic (e.g. sugars, sugar alcohols, acids, amino acids and amines) compounds. The comparative assessment of the profiling data by means of multivariate analyses revealed that differences in lipophilic metabolites were mainly due to seasonal impact. In contrast water deficit was strongly reflected in quantitative changes of polar metabolites, irrespective of natural variability. The impact factor growing location was differently pronounced depending on the growing season. Univariate statistical analysis revealed 17 metabolites, including the monosaccharides fructose and glucose, the trisaccharide raffinose, several organic acids and the biogenic amine γ-aminobutyric acid to be significantly (p-value < 0.01) influenced by drought stress conditions. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Gschwendtner S.,TU Munich | Reichmann M.,Institute for Crop Science and Plant Breeding | Muller M.,Institute for Crop Science and Plant Breeding | Radl V.,TU Munich | And 2 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2010

In this study, the potential effects of a genetically modified (GM) amylopectin-accumulating potato line (Solanum tuberosum L.) on plant beneficial bacteria and fungi as well as on phytopathogens in the rhizosphere were investigated in a greenhouse experiment and a field trial. For comparison, the non-transgenic parental cultivar of the GM line and a second non-transgenic cultivar were included in the study. Rhizospheres were sampled during young leaf development (EC30) and at florescence (EC60). The microbial community composition was analysed by real-time PCR to quantify the abundances of Pseudomonas spp., Clavibacter michiganensis, Trichoderma spp. and Phytophthora infestans. Additionally, total bacterial and fungal abundances were measured. None of the examined gene abundance patterns were affected by the genetic modification when wild type and GM line were compared. However, significant differences were observed between the two natural potato cultivars, especially during the early leaf development of the plants. Furthermore, gene abundance patterns were also influenced by the plant developmental stage. Interestingly, the impact of the cultivar and the plant vegetation stage on the microbial community structure was more pronounced in field than in greenhouse. Overall, field-grown plants showed a higher abundance of microorganisms in the rhizosphere than plants grown under greenhouse conditions. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Hsam S.L.K.,TU Munich | Mohler V.,Institute for Crop Science and Plant Breeding | Zeller F.J.,TU Munich
Journal of Applied Genetics | Year: 2014

The genetics of resistance to powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae of four cultivated oats was studied using monosomic analysis. Cultivar 'Bruno' carries a gene (Pm6) that shows a recessive mode of inheritance and is located on chromosome 10D. Cultivar 'Jumbo' possesses a dominant resistance gene (Pm1) on chromosome 1C. In cultivar 'Rollo', in addition to the gene Pm3 on chromosome 17A, a second dominant resistance gene (Pm8) was identified and assigned to chromosome 4C. In breeding line APR 122, resistance was conditioned by a dominant resistance gene (Pm7) that was allocated to chromosome 13A. Genetic maps established for resistance genes Pm1, Pm6 and Pm7 employing amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers indicated that these genes are independent of each other, supporting the results from monosomic analysis. © 2014 Institute of Plant Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan.

Schmolke M.,TU Munich | Mohler V.,Institute for Crop Science and Plant Breeding | Hartl L.,Institute for Crop Science and Plant Breeding | Zeller F.J.,TU Munich | Hsam S.L.K.,TU Munich
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2012

Powdery mildew is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of wheat. A set of differential Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) isolates was used to test the powdery mildew response of a Triticum monococcum-derived resistant hexaploid line, Tm27d2. Segregation analysis of 95 F 2:3 lines from a Chinese Spring/Tm27d2 cross revealed that the resistance of Tm27d2 is controlled by a single dominant gene. Using monosomic analysis and a molecular mapping approach, the resistance gene was localized to the terminal end of chromosome 2AL. The linkage map of chromosome 2AL consisted of nine simple sequence repeat markers and one sequence-tagged site (STS) marker (ResPm4) indicative for the Pm4 locus. According to the differential reactions of 19 wheat cultivars/lines with known powdery mildew resistance genes to 13 Bgt isolates, Tm27d2 carried a new resistance specificity. The complete association of the resistance allele with STS marker ResPm4 indicated that it represented a new allele at the Pm4 locus. This new allele was designated Pm4d. The two flanking markers Xgwm526 and Xbarc122 closely linked to Pm4d at genetic distances of 3.4 and 1.0 cM, respectively, are present in chromosome bin 2AL1-0.85-1.00. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Kammhuber K.,Institute for Crop Science and Plant Breeding
BrewingScience | Year: 2012

Hop has three groups of variety-specific ingredients. These are the bitter substances, the essential oils and also some low molecular weight polyphenols like the flavonoids. In this work the focus was mainly on the composition of the quercetin- and kaempferol-glycosides, because these compounds are suitable to differentiate varieties. Initial work focused on the development of convenient methods for sample preparation and HPLC-analysis. Then nearly the whole available world hop collection (121 different varieties from 17 countries) was analysed. The data were evaluated by a principal component analysis to make differences and similarities visible. Some varieties are clearly distinguished from their polyphenol composition, while others, especially the old land races, were barely distinguishable from each other.

Lutz A.,Institute for Crop Science and Plant Breeding | Kammhuber K.,Institute for Crop Science and Plant Breeding | Seigner E.,Institute for Crop Science and Plant Breeding
BrewingScience | Year: 2012

Hop cultivars have been developed at the Hop Research Center Huell since 1926. Until recently, all breeding programmes pursued the objectives to develop aroma varieties of the classical European noble aroma type and high yielding, high-alpha varieties. Both groups fully satisfied the demands of growers and brewers worldwide. However, initiated by the US craft brewers and also taken up by other creative brewers worldwide novel hop-derived aroma and flavour notes in beer attracted much attention. Therefore, new breeding efforts started in 2006 which already brought forth several experimental lines which impart multifaceted floral, fruity and citrusy aroma impressions to beer. Two hop varieties introducing mandarin-orange or fruity-piney notes to beer have already been submitted for registration for Plant Variety Rights and others will follow.

Mohler V.,Institute for Crop Science and Plant Breeding | Bauer C.,Institute for Crop Science and Plant Breeding | Schweizer G.,Institute for Crop Science and Plant Breeding | Kempf H.,Secobra Saatzucht GmbH | Hartl L.,Institute for Crop Science and Plant Breeding
Journal of Applied Genetics | Year: 2013

Fungal diseases of wheat, including powdery mildew, cause significant crop, yield and quality losses throughout the world. Knowledge of the genetic basis of powdery mildew resistance will greatly support future efforts to develop and cultivate resistant cultivars. Studies were conducted on cultivated emmer-derived wheat line K2 to identify genes involved in powdery mildew resistance at the seedling and adult plant growth stages using a BC1 doubled haploid population derived from a cross between K2 and susceptible cultivar Audace. A single gene was located distal to microsatellite marker Xgwm294 on the long arm of chromosome 2A. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis indicated that the gene was also effective at the adult plant stage, explaining up to 79.0 % of the variation in the progeny. Comparison of genetic maps indicated that the resistance gene in K2 was different from Pm4, the only other formally named resistance gene located on chromosome 2AL, and PmHNK54, a gene derived from Chinese germplasm. The new gene was designated Pm50. © 2013 Institute of Plant Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan.

Singh D.,University of Sydney | Mohler V.,Institute for Crop Science and Plant Breeding | Park R.F.,University of Sydney
Euphytica | Year: 2013

A temporarily designated gene LrARK12c (identified from spelt wheat cv. Altgold Rotkorn) with an intermediate low infection type was found effective against prevalent Australian Puccinia triticina (Pt) pathotypes. The gene was mapped to chromosome 1B between markers Xgwm18 and Xbarc187, with linkage distances of 1. 0 and 1. 3 cM, respectively. While it was not possible to assign a definitive chromosomal arm location to LrARK12c, it maps close to the centromere based on physical mapping of SSR marker loci using deletion lines. Other genes conferring resistance to Pt in chromosome 1B include Lr33, Lr44 and Lr46. Genetic analysis showed that LrARK12c and Lr44 are genetically independent. Comparisons of markers linked to LrARK12c and Lr46 indicate that Lr46 should be well distal to the centromere. Lr33 is not effective in the seedling stage with Australian Pt pathotypes, therefore question of possible allelism of LrARK12c and Lr33 cannot be resolved using Australian Pt pathotypes. Genetic studies, chromosome mapping and allelism tests indicated that LrARK12c is a new and genetically independent leaf rust resistance locus, and hence it was designated Lr71 in accordance with the rules of wheat gene nomenclature. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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