Institute for Crop and Soil Science

Braunschweig, Germany

Institute for Crop and Soil Science

Braunschweig, Germany
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Bloem E.,Institute for Crop and Soil Science | Rubekin K.,Institute for Crop and Soil Science | Haneklaus S.,Institute for Crop and Soil Science | Banfalvi Z.,Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science | Year: 2011

Different transgenic potato lines were generated for improving the nutritional value of tubers by an advanced perception of their sulphur metabolism. So far no data exist about possible implications for plant health and stress resistance. Metabolite analysis revealed that modifications of enzymes involved in sulphur metabolism were necessarily not reflected in distinctly altered thiol contents. The release of H2S by plants is putatively involved in pathogen resistance, because of its fungi-toxic mode of action. The emission of H2S was determined in 16 potato lines with modified expression level in ATP sulphurylase (ATPS), serine acetyltransferase (SAT), O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL), homoserine kinase (HSK) and threonine synthase activities. The emission significantly increased by factor 7 in one of the ATPS antisense lines and by factor 8 in one of the OASTL antisense lines. A strong increase in H2S emissions was observed in transgenic plants based on the potato cultivar White Lady, which expressed the Escherichia coli SAT. In addition, the exchange of COS was determined in relation to genetic modifications. Generally, plants act as a sink for COS, but all transgenic lines expressing the E. coli HSK and one of the ATPS antisense lines emitted COS indicating to strong changes in the metabolism of these plants. Such alterations in the gas exchange of transgenic potato plants will most likely also affect their resistance against biotic and abiotic stress. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


PubMed | Institute for Crop and Soil Science, Sustainable Development Technology, Federal University of Lavras and Vale Institute of Technology Mining
Type: | Journal: Ecotoxicology and environmental safety | Year: 2015

Rare earth elements such as lanthanum (La) have been used as agricultural inputs in some countries in order to enhance yield and improve crop quality. However, little is known about the effect of La on the growth and structure of soybean, which is an important food and feed crop worldwide. In this study, bioaccumulation of La and its effects on the growth and mitotic index of soybean was evaluated. Soybean plants were exposed to increasing concentrations of La (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 M) in nutrient solution for 28 days. Plant response to La was evaluated in terms of plant growth, nutritional characteristics, photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll content, mitotic index, modifications in the ultrastructure of roots and leaves, and La mapping in root and shoot tissues. The results showed that the roots of soybean plants can accumulate sixty-fold more La than shoots. La deposition occurred mainly in cell walls and in crystals dispersed in the root cortex and in the mesophyll. When La was applied, it resulted in increased contents of some essential nutrients (i.e., Ca, P, K, and Mn), while Cu and Fe levels decreased. Moreover, low La concentrations stimulated the photosynthetic rate and total chlorophyll content and lead to a higher incidence of binucleate cells, resulting in a slight increase in roots and shoot biomass. At higher La levels, soybean growth was reduced. This was caused by ultrastructural modifications in the cell wall, thylakoids and chloroplasts, and the appearance of c-metaphases.


Koffler B.E.,University of Graz | Bloem E.,Institute for Crop and Soil Science | Zellnig G.,University of Graz | Zechmann B.,University of Graz
Micron | Year: 2013

Glutathione is an important antioxidant and redox buffer in plants. It fulfills many important roles during plant development, defense and is essential for plant metabolism. Even though the compartment specific roles of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress situations have been studied in detail there is still great lack of knowledge about subcellular glutathione concentrations within the different leaf areas at different stages of development. In this study a method is described that allows the calculation of compartment specific glutathione concentrations in all cell compartments simultaneously in one experiment by using quantitative immunogold electron microscopy combined with biochemical methods in different leaf areas of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 (center of the leaf, leaf apex, leaf base and leaf edge). The volume of subcellular compartments in the mesophyll of Arabidopsis was found to be similar to other plants. Vacuoles covered the largest volume within a mesophyll cell and increased with leaf age (up to 80% in the leaf apex of older leaves). Behind vacuoles, chloroplasts covered the second largest volume (up to 20% in the leaf edge of the younger leaves) followed by nuclei (up to 2.3% in the leaf edge of the younger leaves), mitochondria (up to 1.6% in the leaf apex of the younger leaves), and peroxisomes (up to 0.3% in the leaf apex of the younger leaves). These values together with volumes of the mesophyll determined by stereological methods from light and electron micrographs and global glutathione contents measured with biochemical methods enabled the determination of subcellular glutathione contents in mM. Even though biochemical investigations did not reveal differences in global glutathione contents, compartment specific differences could be observed in some cell compartments within the different leaf areas. Highest concentrations of glutathione were always found in mitochondria, where values in a range between 8.7. mM (in the apex of younger leaves) and 15.1. mM (in the apex of older leaves) were found. The second highest amount of glutathione was found in nuclei (between 5.5. mM and 9.7. mM in the base and the center of younger leaves, respectively) followed by peroxisomes (between 2.6. mM in the edge of younger leaves and 4.8. mM in the base of older leaves, respectively) and the cytosol (2.8. mM in the edge of younger and 4.5. mM in the center of older leaves, respectively). Chloroplasts contained rather low amounts of glutathione (between 1. mM and 1.4. mM). Vacuoles had the lowest concentrations of glutathione (0.01. mM and 0.14. mM) but showed large differences between the different leaf areas. Clear differences in glutathione contents between the different leaf areas could only be found in vacuoles and mitochondria revealing that glutathione in the later cell organelle accumulated with leaf age to concentrations of up to 15. mM and that concentrations of glutathione in vacuoles are quite low in comparison to the other cell compartments. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


YANG Z.-H.,Central South University | YANG Z.-H.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | STOVEN K.,Institute for Crop and Soil Science | HANEKLAUS S.,Institute for Crop and Soil Science | And 2 more authors.
Pedosphere | Year: 2010

The prediction of the oxidation rate of elemental sulfur (S0) is a critical step in sulfur (S) fertilizer strategy to supply plant-available sulfur. An incubation experiment was conducted to determine the rate and amount of S0 oxidation in relation to the contribution of Thiobacillus spp. and aerobic heterotrophic S-oxidizing bacteria. After 84 days, 16.3% and 22.4% of the total S0 applied to the soil were oxidized at 20 and 30 °C, respectively. The oxidation of S0 proved to be a two-step process with a rapid oxidation during the first 28 days and a slow oxidation from then on. The highest oxidation rate of 12.8 μg S cm-2 d-1 was measured during the first two weeks at 30 °C. At 20 °C the highest oxidation rate of 10.2 μg S cm-2 d-1 was obtained from two to four weeks after start of the experiment. On an average the soil pH declined by 3.6 and 4.0 units after two weeks of experiment. At the same time the electric conductivity increased nine times. With the oxidation of S0 the population of Thiobacillus spp. and aerobic heterotrophic S-oxidizing bacteria increased. The corresponding values for Thiobacillus spp. and aerobic heterotrophic S-oxidizing bacteria increased from 2.9 × 105 and 1.4 × 105 g-1 soil at the start of the experiment to 4 × 108 and 5.6 × 108 g-1 soil 14 days after S0 application, respectively. No Thiobacillus spp. was present eight weeks after S0 application. The results suggested that oxidation of residual S0 completely relied on aerobic heterotrophic S-oxidizing bacteria. © 2010 Soil Science Society of China.


Bloem E.,Institute for Crop and Soil Science | Haneklaus S.,Institute for Crop and Soil Science | Kleinwachter M.,TU Braunschweig | Paulsen J.,TU Braunschweig | And 2 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2014

The glucosinolate (GSL) content is an important quality parameter of crops, such as mustard, horseradish or nasturtium, which are grown for their taste as condiments or for medical purposes. Accordingly, an enhancement of the GSL content should promote the large-scale cultivation of these plants. It is well known that GSLs reveal a high significance in plant defense, and that several stress factors cause an increase in the GSL concentration. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the means to stimulate the GSL biosynthesis during plant growth by applying moderate stress. The impact of different treatments on the GSL content and on growth of Tropaeolum majus L. was investigated in a greenhouse trial. Moderate stress was induced by drought, by the addition of salt, or the application of growth regulators (methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid). Moreover, cell wall lysate was applied to the plants to mimic biotic stress, such as pathogen attack. Evapotranspiration (ETP), biomass development, specific leaf weight (SLW), plant pigments, and thiol contents had been recorded to evaluate physiological changes in response to the treatments. The glucotropaeolin (GT) content, representing the sole GSL of T. majus was measured as target compound. Drought and MeJA application increased the GT concentration on dry weight basis and impacted on ETP, dry matter content, SLW and plant pigments, too. Application of salt, SA and cell wall lysate did not affect the GT concentration in a consistent way. Moderate drought and the application of MeJA are suitable tools to increase the GT concentration in T. majus. However, in case of drought the higher GT concentration was only reached at the expense of biomass production. High GT concentrations together with reasonable yields were only achieved by MeJA application. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Bloem E.,Institute for Crop and Soil Science | Haneklaus S.,Institute for Crop and Soil Science | Kesselmeier J.,Max Planck Institute for Chemistry | Schnug E.,Institute for Crop and Soil Science
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

The emission of gaseous sulfur (S) compounds by plants is related to several factors, such as the plant S status or fungal infection. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is either released or taken up by the plant depending on the ambient air concentration and the plant demand for S. On the contrary, carbonyl sulfide (COS) is normally taken up by plants. In a greenhouse experiment, the dependence of H2S and COS exchange with ambient air on the S status of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and on fungal infection with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was investigated. Thiol contents were determined to understand their influence on the exchange of gaseous S compounds. The experiment revealed that H2S emissions were closely related to pathogen infections as well as to S nutrition. S fertilization caused a change from H2S consumption by S-deficient oilseed rape plants to a H 2S release of 41 pg g-1 (dw) min-1 after the addition of 250 mg of S per pot. Fungal infection caused an even stronger increase of H2S emissions with a maximum of 1842 pg g-1 (dw) min-1 2 days after infection. Healthy oilseed rape plants acted as a sink for COS. Fungal infection caused a shift from COS uptake to COS releases. The release of S-containing gases thus seems to be part of the response to fungal infection. The roles the S-containing gases may play in this response are discussed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Bloem E.,Institute for Crop and Soil Science | Haneklaus S.,Institute for Crop and Soil Science | Schnug E.,Institute for Crop and Soil Science
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The most important active compound in garlic is alliin. Sulfur (S) fertilization was shown to significantly increase the alliin concentration in garlic cloves, while high nitrogen (N) levels had an adverse effect. The effect of graded Nand S application on the storage life of garlic has been paid little attention so far. A bifactorial field trial with 4 levels of N and S was conducted in a randomized block design. At harvest, 40 bulbs per treatment were stored under terms comparable to the storage conditions in average households (20 °C, dry, and dim) for 83 days. Every 3 weeks, samples were analyzed for their alliin and water content. The alliin concentration in peeled garlic cloves increased during storage from on average 9.2 mg g-1 dry weight at harvest to 21.4 mg g-1 dry weight after 83 days of storage. S fertilization increased the alliin concentration by a factor of 2.3 from 11.4 mg g-1 in the control treatment to 26.6 mg g-1 dry weight at the highest S level of 45 kg ha-1 after 83 days of storage.Nfertilization decreased by a trend of the alliin content. Fertilizer rates had only a minor influence on water losses from bulbs at short-term storage. After 83 days of storage, water losses were by trend lower at higher S levels, and this relationship proved to be significant when noNwas applied. Best quality in terms of high alliin contents was obtained during the entire storage time at an S level of at minimum 30 kg ha-1 S if no N was applied. The results show that the physiological S demand of 15 kg ha-1 S for optimum yield is lower than the S requirement of 30 kg ha-1 S for a longer storage life. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Bloem E.,Institute for Crop and Soil Science | Haneklaus S.,Institute for Crop and Soil Science | Schnug E.,Institute for Crop and Soil Science
Phyton - Annales Rei Botanicae | Year: 2013

BLOEM E., HANEKLAUS S. & SCHNUG E. 2013. Tropaeolum majus L. - Life cycle and optimum harvest time for highest glucotropaeolin contents. - Phyton Hom Austria) 53 (2): 305-319, with 3 figures. Garden nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus L.) has been chosen as medicinal plant 2013 in Germany and its health effects are well described. In the presented study phenological characteristics of T. majus during the vegetation cycle have been assessed together with the determination of the glucotropaeolin (GT) content in different plant parts and GT yield (GT concentration x yield). A high concentration of this bio-active compound is a prerequisite for the commercial use of the plant. Plant samples were taken weekly from field grown T. majus. Sulfur (S) was applied at two rates (0 and 100 kg ha-1 S) in order to enhance GT biosynthesis. The best GT yield was determined during main vegetative growth until flowering. The GT content decreased steeply in vegetative plant parts after main flowering, indicating transport of GT into flowers and seeds. Generally, growth of T. majus is characterized by a long flowering period where new flowers emerged side by side with developing and maturing seeds. S fertilization increased significantly the GT content in leaves at main vegetative growth by up to 23% and is next to harvest time an important measure to improve the product quality.


Bloem E.,Institute for Crop and Soil Science | Haneklaus S.,Institute for Crop and Soil Science | Schnug E.,Institute for Crop and Soil Science
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Cysteine sulfoxides (e.g., alliin) are the characteristic sulfur-containing secondary compounds in garlic, which account for taste and pharmaceutical quality. It was the aim of the present study to investigate the influence of sulfur and nitrogen supply under field conditions on the alliin content and cysteine and glutathione as possible precursors. Sulfur and nitrogen were applied in four different rates, and five samplings were conducted. Sulfur fertilization significantly increased the cysteine, glutathione, and alliin contents of leaves and bulbs, while nitrogen fertilization had no significant influence. Cysteine increased by a factor of 1.3-1.5 in leaves and 1.0-2.0 in bulbs. Glutathione increased significantly in bulbs by a factor of 0.9-1.6 but only at main growth and not at maturity. The alliin concentration in bulbs increased with S fertilization significantly at all harvesting dates and at maturity from 5.1 to 11.2 mg g-1 of dry weight. High sulfur application in combination with low nitrogen fertilization increased the alliin concentration in garlic significantly during main growth until the beginning of ripening. At the last harvest, 15 kg ha-1 S resulted in high-quality garlic suitable for consumption and use in plant protection or pharmaceutical industries. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


PubMed | Institute for Crop and Soil Science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry | Year: 2012

The emission of gaseous sulfur (S) compounds by plants is related to several factors, such as the plant S status or fungal infection. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is either released or taken up by the plant depending on the ambient air concentration and the plant demand for S. On the contrary, carbonyl sulfide (COS) is normally taken up by plants. In a greenhouse experiment, the dependence of H(2)S and COS exchange with ambient air on the S status of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and on fungal infection with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was investigated. Thiol contents were determined to understand their influence on the exchange of gaseous S compounds. The experiment revealed that H(2)S emissions were closely related to pathogen infections as well as to S nutrition. S fertilization caused a change from H(2)S consumption by S-deficient oilseed rape plants to a H(2)S release of 41 pg g(-1) (dw) min(-1) after the addition of 250 mg of S per pot. Fungal infection caused an even stronger increase of H(2)S emissions with a maximum of 1842 pg g(-1) (dw) min(-1) 2 days after infection. Healthy oilseed rape plants acted as a sink for COS. Fungal infection caused a shift from COS uptake to COS releases. The release of S-containing gases thus seems to be part of the response to fungal infection. The roles the S-containing gases may play in this response are discussed.

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