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Klein T.,Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology | Klein T.,Institute for Corrosion Protection Dresden | Zihlmann D.,Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology | Zihlmann D.,ETH Zurich | And 10 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2016

Traditionally, chemical and physical methods have been used to control biofouling on membranes by inactivating and removing the biofouling layer. Alternatively, the permeability can be increased using biological methods while accepting the presence of the biofouling layer. We have investigated two different types of metazoans for this purpose, the oligochaete Aelosoma hemprichi and the nematode Plectus aquatilis. The addition of these grazing metazoans in biofilm-controlled membrane systems resulted in a flux increase of 50% in presence of the oligochaetes (Aelosoma hemprichi), and a flux increase of 119-164% in presence of the nematodes (Plectus aquatilis) in comparison to the control system operated without metazoans. The change in flux resulted from (1) a change in the biofilm structure, from a homogeneous, cake-like biofilm to a more heterogeneous, porous structure and (2) a significant reduction in the thickness of the basal layer. Pyrosequencing data showed that due to the addition of the predators, also the community composition of the biofilm in terms of protists and bacteria was strongly affected. The results have implications for a range of membrane processes, including ultrafiltration for potable water production, membrane bioreactors and reverse osmosis. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: SGA-RIA | Phase: FETFLAGSHIP | Award Amount: 89.00M | Year: 2016

This project is the second in the series of EC-financed parts of the Graphene Flagship. The Graphene Flagship is a 10 year research and innovation endeavour with a total project cost of 1,000,000,000 euros, funded jointly by the European Commission and member states and associated countries. The first part of the Flagship was a 30-month Collaborative Project, Coordination and Support Action (CP-CSA) under the 7th framework program (2013-2016), while this and the following parts are implemented as Core Projects under the Horizon 2020 framework. The mission of the Graphene Flagship is to take graphene and related layered materials from a state of raw potential to a point where they can revolutionise multiple industries. This will bring a new dimension to future technology a faster, thinner, stronger, flexible, and broadband revolution. Our program will put Europe firmly at the heart of the process, with a manifold return on the EU investment, both in terms of technological innovation and economic growth. To realise this vision, we have brought together a larger European consortium with about 150 partners in 23 countries. The partners represent academia, research institutes and industries, which work closely together in 15 technical work packages and five supporting work packages covering the entire value chain from materials to components and systems. As time progresses, the centre of gravity of the Flagship moves towards applications, which is reflected in the increasing importance of the higher - system - levels of the value chain. In this first core project the main focus is on components and initial system level tasks. The first core project is divided into 4 divisions, which in turn comprise 3 to 5 work packages on related topics. A fifth, external division acts as a link to the parts of the Flagship that are funded by the member states and associated countries, or by other funding sources. This creates a collaborative framework for the entire Flagship.


Bolelli G.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Borner T.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Borner T.,Institute for Corrosion Protection Dresden | Milanti A.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | And 6 more authors.
Surface and Coatings Technology | Year: 2014

Fe-based coatings are promising alternatives to Ni-based ones, because of lower cost and lower toxicity. Following a previous research, where the sliding wear resistance of HVOF-sprayed Fe-Cr-Ni-Si-B-C alloy coatings was found to compare favorably with that of a Ni-Cr-B-Si-C alloy and of electroplated chromium, the present study investigates the wear resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni-Si-B-C. +. WC-Co composite coatings. The Fe-alloy feedstock powder was therefore blended with 0, 20 and 40. wt.% of a WC-12. wt.% Co powder and sprayed by HVOF and HVAF processes. HVAF-sprayed coatings exhibit less structural alteration than HVOF-sprayed ones, which results in lower intrinsic nanohardness of both Fe-alloy and WC-Co splats; however, HVOF- and HVAF-sprayed coatings exhibit similar Vickers microhardness. Somewhat poorer interlamellar bonding in HVAF-sprayed coatings results in a greater tendency to microcracking during dry sliding wear testing at room temperature; however, dry sliding wear rates of HVOF- and HVAF-sprayed samples never differ significantly. The reinforcing effect of WC-Co decreases the wear rate of composite coatings (≈10-6mm3/(Nm)) by more than order of magnitude, compared to unreinforced ones (≈1-2*10-5mm3/(Nm)).As the test temperature is increased to 400°C and 700°C, the dry sliding wear rates of all samples increase (up to 10-4mm3/(Nm) or greater). The greatest changes are observed when the WC-Co content is larger, as it suffers from oxidation and thermal alteration more than the Fe-alloy matrix. The abrasive wear resistance of the Fe-based coatings, evaluated by rubber-wheel testing, is also significantly improved by the addition of WC-Co. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Bolelli G.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Berger L.-M.,Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology | Berger L.-M.,Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems | Borner T.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | And 11 more authors.
Surface and Coatings Technology | Year: 2015

This paper provides a comprehensive assessment of the sliding and abrasive wear behaviour of WC-10Co4Cr hardmetal coatings, representative of the existing state-of-the-art. A commercial feedstock powder with two different particle size distributions was sprayed onto carbon steel substrates using two HVOF and two HVAF spray processes. Mild wear rates of <10-7mm3/(Nm) and friction coefficients of ≈0.5 were obtained for all samples in ball-on-disk sliding wear tests at room temperature against Al2O3 counterparts. WC-10Co4Cr coatings definitely outperform a reference electrolytic hard chromium coating under these test conditions. Their wear mechanisms include extrusion and removal of the binder matrix, with the formation of a wavy surface morphology, and brittle cracking. The balance of such phenomena is closely related to intra-lamellar features, and rather independent of those properties (e.g. indentation fracture toughness, elastic modulus) which mainly reflect large-scale inter-lamellar cohesion, as quantitatively confirmed by a principal component analysis. Intra-lamellar dissolution of WC into the matrix indeed increases the incidence of brittle cracking, resulting in slightly higher wear rates. At 400°C, some of the hardmetal coatings fail because of the superposition between tensile residual stresses and thermal expansion mismatch stresses (due to the difference between the thermal expansion coefficients of the steel substrate and of the hardmetal coating). Those which do not fail, on account of lower residual stresses, exhibit higher wear rates than at room temperature, due to oxidation of the WC grains.The resistance of the coatings against abrasive wear, assessed by dry sand-rubber wheel testing, is related to inter-lamellar cohesion, as proven by a principal component analysis of the collected dataset. Therefore, coatings deposited from coarse feedstock powders suffer higher wear loss than those obtained from fine powders, as brittle inter-lamellar detachment is caused by their weaker interparticle cohesion, witnessed by their systematically lower fracture toughness as well. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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