Institute for Complex Analysis

Birobidzhan, Russia

Institute for Complex Analysis

Birobidzhan, Russia
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Kompanichenko V.N.,Institute for Complex Analysis
Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres | Year: 2012

The essence of the inversion concept of the origin of life can be narrowed down to the following theses: 1) thermodynamic inversion is the key transformation of prebiotic microsystems leading to their transition into primary forms of life; 2) this transformation might occur only in the microsystems oscillating around the bifurcation point under far-from-equilibrium conditions. The transformation consists in the inversion of the balance "free energy contribution / entropy contribution", from negative to positive values. At the inversion moment the microsystem radically reorganizes in accordance with the new negentropy (i. e. biological) way of organization. According to this approach, the origin-of-life process on the early Earth took place in the fluctuating hydrothermal medium. The process occurred in two successive stages: a) spontaneous self-assembly of initial three-dimensional prebiotic microsystems composed mainly of hydrocarbons, lipids and simple amino acids, or their precursors, within the temperature interval of 100-300°C (prebiotic stage); b) non-spontaneous synthesis of sugars, ATP and nucleic acids started at the inversion moment under the temperature 70-100°C (biotic stage). Macro- and microfluctuations of thermodynamic and physico-chemical parameters able to sustain this way of chemical conversion have been detected in several contemporary hydrothermal systems. A minimal self-sufficient unit of life on the early Earth was a community of simplest microorganisms (not a separate microorganism). © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Kompanichenko V.N.,Institute for Complex Analysis | Poturay V.A.,Institute for Complex Analysis | Shlufman K.V.,Institute for Complex Analysis
Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres | Year: 2015

The composition of organic matter and fluctuations of thermodynamic parameters were investigated in the hydrothermal systems of the Kamchatka peninsula in the context of the origin of life. Organics were analyzed by gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry, and 111 organic compounds belonging to 14 homologous series (aromatic hydrocarbons, alkanes and isoalkanes, halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids, esters, etc.) were found in hot springs inhabited by Archaeal and Bacterial thermophiles. The organics detected in the sterile condensate of water-steam mixture taken from deep boreholes (temperature 108–175 °C) consisted of 69 compounds of 11 homologous series, with aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanes being prevalent. The organic material included important prebiotic components such as nitrogen-containing compounds and lipid precursors. A separate organic phase (oil) was discovered in the Uzon Caldera. A biogenic origin is supported by the presence of sterane and hopane biomarkers and the δ13C value of the bulk oil; its age determined by 14C measurements was 1030 ± 40 years. Multilevel fluctuations of thermodynamic parameters proposed to be required for the origin of life were determined in the Mutnovsky and Pauzhetsky hydrothermal systems. The low-frequency component of the hydrothermal fluid pressure varied by up to 2 bars over periods of hours to days, while mid-frequency variations had regular micro-oscillations with periods of about 20 min; the high-frequency component displayed sharp changes of pressure and microfluctuations with periods less than 5 min. The correlation coefficient between pressure and temperature ranges from 0.89 to 0.99 (average 0.96). The natural regimes of pressure and temperature fluctuations in Kamchatka hydrothermal systems can guide future experiments on prebiotic chemistry under oscillating conditions. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


PubMed | Institute for Complex Analysis
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Origins of life and evolution of the biosphere : the journal of the International Society for the Study of the Origin of Life | Year: 2015

The composition of organic matter and fluctuations of thermodynamic parameters were investigated in the hydrothermal systems of the Kamchatka peninsula in the context of the origin of life. Organics were analyzed by gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry, and 111 organic compounds belonging to 14 homologous series (aromatic hydrocarbons, alkanes and isoalkanes, halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids, esters, etc.) were found in hot springs inhabited by Archaeal and Bacterial thermophiles. The organics detected in the sterile condensate of water-steam mixture taken from deep boreholes (temperature 108-175C) consisted of 69 compounds of 11 homologous series, with aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanes being prevalent. The organic material included important prebiotic components such as nitrogen-containing compounds and lipid precursors. A separate organic phase (oil) was discovered in the Uzon Caldera. A biogenic origin is supported by the presence of sterane and hopane biomarkers and the (13)C value of the bulk oil; its age determined by (14)C measurements was 103040years. Multilevel fluctuations of thermodynamic parameters proposed to be required for the origin of life were determined in the Mutnovsky and Pauzhetsky hydrothermal systems. The low-frequency component of the hydrothermal fluid pressure varied by up to 2 bars over periods of hours to days, while mid-frequency variations had regular micro-oscillations with periods of about 20min; the high-frequency component displayed sharp changes of pressure and microfluctuations with periods less than 5min. The correlation coefficient between pressure and temperature ranges from 0.89 to 0.99 (average 0.96). The natural regimes of pressure and temperature fluctuations in Kamchatka hydrothermal systems can guide future experiments on prebiotic chemistry under oscillating conditions.


PubMed | Institute for Complex Analysis
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in bioscience (Elite edition) | Year: 2014

Biological organization arises under thermodynamic inversion in prebiotic systems that provide the prevalence of free energy and information contribution over the entropy contribution. The inversion might occur under specific far-from-equilibrium conditions in prebiotic systems oscillating around the bifurcation point. At the inversion moment, (physical) information characteristic of non-biological systems acquires the new features: functionality, purposefulness, and control over the life processes, which transform it into biological information. Random sequences of amino acids and nucleotides, spontaneously synthesized in the prebiotic microsystem, in the primary living unit (probiont) re-assemble into functional sequences, involved into bioinformation circulation through nucleoprotein interaction, resulted in the genetic code emergence. According to the proposed concept, oscillating three-dimensional prebiotic microsystems transformed into probionts in the changeable hydrothermal medium of the early Earth. The inversion concept states that spontaneous (accidental, random) transformations in prebiotic systems cannot produce life; it is only non-spontaneous (perspective, purposeful) transformations, which are the result of thermodynamic inversion, that lead to the negentropy conversion of prebiotic systems into initial living units.


PubMed | Institute for Complex Analysis
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Origins of life and evolution of the biosphere : the journal of the International Society for the Study of the Origin of Life | Year: 2012

The essence of the inversion concept of the origin of life can be narrowed down to the following theses: 1) thermodynamic inversion is the key transformation of prebiotic microsystems leading to their transition into primary forms of life; 2) this transformation might occur only in the microsystems oscillating around the bifurcation point under far-from-equilibrium conditions. The transformation consists in the inversion of the balance free energy contribution / entropy contribution, from negative to positive values. At the inversion moment the microsystem radically reorganizes in accordance with the new negentropy (i.e. biological) way of organization. According to this approach, the origin-of-life process on the early Earth took place in the fluctuating hydrothermal medium. The process occurred in two successive stages: a) spontaneous self-assembly of initial three-dimensional prebiotic microsystems composed mainly of hydrocarbons, lipids and simple amino acids, or their precursors, within the temperature interval of 100-300C (prebiotic stage); b) non-spontaneous synthesis of sugars, ATP and nucleic acids started at the inversion moment under the temperature 70-100C (biotic stage). Macro- and microfluctuations of thermodynamic and physico-chemical parameters able to sustain this way of chemical conversion have been detected in several contemporary hydrothermal systems. A minimal self-sufficient unit of life on the early Earth was a community of simplest microorganisms (not a separate microorganism).

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