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He H.,Shenyang Pharmaceutical University | Zang L.-H.,Shenyang Pharmaceutical University | Feng Y.-S.,Shenyang Pharmaceutical University | Wang J.,Shenyang Pharmaceutical University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Natural Products | Year: 2013

Physalin A (1) is a withanolide isolated from Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii. In this study, the selective growth inhibitory effects on tumor cells induced by 1 were screened, and the mechanism was investigated on 1-induced growth inhibition, including apoptosis and autophagy, in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. Apoptosis induced by 1 in HT1080 cells was associated with up-regulation of caspase-3 and caspase-8 expression. However, there were no significant changes in caspase-9, Bid, Bax, and Bcl-2 expression, indicating that 1-induced apoptosis in HT1080 cells occurs mainly through activation of the death receptor-associated extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Autophagy induced by 1 was found to antagonize apoptosis in HT1080 cells. This effect was enhanced by rapamycin and suppressed by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3MA). Loss of beclin 1 (as an autophagic regulator) function led to similar results to 3MA. However, 1 did not show inhibitory effects on normal human cells (human peripheral blood mononuclear cells). Taken together, these results suggest that 1 may be a promising agent for the treatment of cancer. © 2013 The American Chemical Society and American Society of Pharmacognosy.

Song X.,Shenyang Pharmaceutical University | Zhou B.,Shenyang Pharmaceutical University | Zhang P.,Shenyang Pharmaceutical University | Lei D.,Shenyang Pharmaceutical University | And 7 more authors.
Neurochemical Research | Year: 2016

Silibinin, a flavonoid derived from the herb milk thistle (Silybum marianum), has been used as a hepato-protectant in the clinical treatment of liver disease. In the present study, the effect of silibinin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammatory impairment in rats is investigated. Injection of LPS into lateral ventricle caused learning and memory impairment. Rats were treated with silibinin to see the effect in comparison with resveratrol as a positive control. Y-maze and Morris water maze tests showed that silibinin significantly attenuated memory damage caused by LPS treatment. At the molecular analysis, the levels of IL-1β and of IL-4 in the hippocampus were decreased and enhanced, respectively, by the treatment with silibinin. NF-κB expression was attenuated by silibinin treatment. Furthermore, generation of total reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the hippocampus was elevated in silibinin-treated groups, and so were the expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB). At the same time, LPS-induced reduction of neurons in hippocampus was reversed by silibinin. In conclusion, silibinin ameliorated the impairment of learning and memory of LPS-injection rats, possibly due to the activation of ROS–BDNF–TrkB pathway in the hippocampus as well as the suppression of inflammatory response. This study gives an insight on the beneficial consequences of ROS in central nervous system. Silibinin might be a potential candidate drug for neurodegenerative diseases. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Liu W.,Shenyang Pharmaceutical University | Otkur W.,Shenyang Pharmaceutical University | Li L.,Shenyang Pharmaceutical University | Wang Q.,Shenyang Pharmaceutical University | And 7 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2013

Ultraviolet B (UVB) from sunlight is a major cause of cutaneous lesion. Silibinin, a traditional hepatic protectant, elicits protective effects against UVB-induced cellular damage. In A431 cells, the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) was markedly up-regulated by UVB irradiation. The activation of the IGF-1R signalling pathways contributed to apoptosis of the cells rather than rescuing the cells from death. Up-regulated IGF-1R stimulated downstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). The subsequent activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 led to apoptosis. The activation of IGF-1R signalling pathways is the cause of A431 cell death. The pharmacological inhibitors and the small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting IGF-1R suppressed the downstream activation of JNK/ERK-caspases to help the survival of the UVB-irradiated A431 cells. Indeed, silibinin treatment suppressed the IGF-1R-JNK/ERK pathways and thus protected the cells from UVB-induced apoptosis. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Yao G.,Shenyang Pharmaceutical University | Qi M.,Shenyang Pharmaceutical University | Qi M.,Tianjin Taiyang Pharmaceutical Co. | Ji X.,Shenyang Pharmaceutical University | And 7 more authors.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2014

Pseudolaric acid B (PAB) is a diterpene acid, isolated from the root and trunk bark of Pseudolarix kaempferi Gordon (Pinaceae). Previous studies demonstrated that PAB induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis in several cancer cell lines, but the relationship between G2/M arrest and apoptosis is still unclear. We examined the relevant signaling pathways for human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells treated with 1 μM PAB. Intriguingly, we found that activation of ATM-p53 signaling pathway by the treatment with 1 μM PAB played a protective role for the subsequent apoptosis. Although the treatment with 1 μM PAB up-regulated the expression of cyclin B1 and p-Histone 3 (mitotic markers) at 12 h, the expression decreased at 24 and 36 h along with the up-down expression of mitotic markers. The expressions of p-ATM and p-p53 that were involved in G2/M arrest increased at 12 h after treatment with PAB. However, a prolonged treatment with PAB (longer than 24 h) caused cell apoptosis. When the cells were arrested in G1 or S phase by the treatment with serum starvation, cytosine β-d-arabinofuranoside (Ara-C) or hydroxyurea (Hu), the apoptotic ratio induced by PAB decreased. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Zheng N.,Shenyang Pharmaceutical University | Liu L.,Shenyang Pharmaceutical University | Liu W.,Shenyang Pharmaceutical University | Zhang P.,Shenyang Pharmaceutical University | And 7 more authors.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2016

We previously reported that silibinin induced a loss of cell viability in breast cancer (MCF-7) cells by ERα down-regulation. But whether this cytotoxicity depends on another estrogen receptor, ERβ, has yet to be elucidated. Therefore, we sought to explore the effects of ERβ modulation on cell viability by using an ERβ-selective agonist (Diarylprepionitrile, DPN) and an antagonist (PHTPP). Our data demonstrated that ERβ served as a growth suppressor in MCF-7 cells, and the incubation of silibinin, elevated ERβ expression, resulting in the tumor growth inhibition. The cytotoxic effect of silibinin was diminished by PHTPP and enhanced by DPN. Silencing of ERβ by siRNA confirmed these results. Apoptotic cascades, including the sequential activation of caspase-9 and -6, and finally the cleavage of caspase substrates, PARP and ICAD, caused by treatment with silibinin, were all repressed by PHTPP pre-treatment but exacerbated by DPN. Unlike ERα, ERβ did not involve autophagic process in the regulation, since neither autophagic inhibitor (3-MA) nor the inducer (rapamycin) affected the cell survival rates regardless ERβ activity. Taken together, silibinin induced apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway by up-regulating ERβ pathways in MCF-7 cells without the involvement of autophagy. © 2016 Published by Elsevier Inc.

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