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Liebezeit G.,Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment | Liebezeit E.,MarChemConsult
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment

A total of 19 honey samples, mostly from Germany but also from France, Italy, Spain and Mexico, were analysed for non-pollen particulates. Only coloured fibres and fragments were quantified. Transparent fibres, considered to be cellulosic because they could be stained with fuchsin, were not quantified. Coloured material was found in all the samples investigated. Fibre counts ranged from 40/kg to 660/kg of honey, with a mean value of 166 ± 147/kg of honey, whereas fragments were considerably less abundant (0-38/kg of honey; mean 9 ± 9/kg of honey). Sources are tentatively identified as environmental, that is particles having been transported by the bees into the hive, or having been introduced during honey processing or both. In addition, five commercial sugars were analysed. In all the refined samples, transparent and coloured fibres (mean 217 ± 123/kg of sugar) and fragments (32 ± 7/kg of sugar) were found. Unrefined cane sugar had 560 fibres and 540 fragments per kilogram of honey. In addition, in both honey and sugar samples, granular non-pollen material was observed. © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source

Hieronymi M.,Leibniz Institute of Marine Science | Hieronymi M.,Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research | MacKe A.,Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research | Zielinski O.,Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment
Ocean Science

A Monte Carlo based radiative transfer model has been developed for calculating the availability of solar radiation within the top 100 m of the ocean. The model is optimized for simulations of spatial high resolution downwelling irradiance i E d fluctuations that arise from the lensing effect of waves at the water surface. In a first step the accuracy of simulation results has been verified by measurements of the oceanic underwater light field and through intercomparison with an established radiative transfer model. Secondly the potential depth-impact of nonlinear shaped single waves, from capillary to swell waves, is assessed by considering the most favorable conditions for light focusing, i.e. monochromatic light at 490 nm, very clear oceanic water with a low chlorophyll i a content of 0.1 mg m-3 and high sun elevation. Finally light fields below irregular wave profiles accounting for realistic sea states were simulated. Our simulation results suggest that under open ocean conditions light flashes with 50% irradiance enhancements can appear down to 35 m depth, and light variability in the range of ±10% compared to the mean i E d is still possible in 100 m depth. © 2013 Author(s). Source

Nomura D.,Norwegian Polar Institute | Nomura D.,Japan Society for the Promotion of Science | Nomura D.,Hokkaido University | Assmy P.,Norwegian Polar Institute | And 7 more authors.
Annals of Glaciology

We identified ikaite crystals (CaCO3·6H2O) and examined their shape and size distribution in first-year Arctic pack ice, overlying snow and slush layers during the spring melt onset north of Svalbard. Additional measurements of total alkalinity (TA) were made for melted snow and sea-ice samples. Ikaite crystals were mainly found in the bottom of the snowpack, in slush and the surface layers of the sea ice where the temperature was generally lower and salinity higher than in the ice below. Image analysis showed that ikaite crystals were characterized by a roughly elliptical shape and a maximum caliper diameter of 201.0±115.9 μm (n = 918). Since the ice-melting season had already started, ikaite crystals may already have begun to dissolve, which might explain the lack of a relationship between ikaite crystal size and sea-ice parameters (temperature, salinity, and thickness of snow and ice). Comparisons of salinity and TA profiles for melted ice samples suggest that the precipitation/dissolution of ikaite crystals occurred at the top of the sea ice and the bottom of the snowpack during ice formation/ melting processes. Source

Jin H.,Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment | Liebezeit G.,Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment | Ziehe D.,Johann Heinrich Von Thunen Institute
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

A total of 114 surface sediment samples was equidistantly collected in the western part of the Jade Bay, southern North Sea, to analyse total mercury contents as well as grain size distribution and total organic carbon (TOC) contents. Total mercury was determined by oxygen combustion-gold amalgamation. Validation, precision and accuracy of the method were evaluated and controlled with two certified reference materials (HISS-1 and MESS-3). Total mercury contents varied between 8 and 243 ng/g dry sediment with a mean value of 103 ng/g dw. The mercury levels in surface sediments showed an inhomogeneous spatial distribution with higher contents in near-dike areas. The values are mostly in the range of natural background values (50-100 ng/g dw) and positively related to TOC and clay/silt contents (\63 lm). The present total mercury contents are compared to those of previous studies, in order to estimate possible temporal trends of mercury contents in the study area over the last decades. Moreover, the comparison to sediment quality guidelines indicated that the surface sediments of the Jade Bay are not mercury contaminated. These results also suggested that the current mercury contents of Jade Bay surficial sediments are mostly affected by atmospheric deposition and re-emission. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source

Jin H.,Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment | Liebezeit G.,Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment
Journal of Soils and Sediments

Purpose: Sediment cores provide a reliable record of mercury (Hg) contamination and can be used to study long-term Hg pollution and relevant environmental change. In the last hundred years, there were several events which may have contributed to the accumulation of Hg in Jade Bay and its catchment. This work was undertaken to assess the record in total Hg (THg) content in sediments of cores from Jade Bay and its catchment. Materials and methods: A 5-m sediment core from Jade Bay, Lower Saxonian Wadden Sea, southern North Sea and a 12-m core from its catchment area (Wangerland, coastal zone of the Jade Bay) were used to study Hg contents in sediments. Total Hg, grain size distribution, aluminium (Al) and total organic carbon (TOC) were analysed on subsamples of both sediment cores. Total Hg was determined by oxygen combustion-gold amalgamation using DMA-80. Results and discussion: As THg contents of the Jade Bay core were positively correlated to the sum of TOC and Al contents (r2 = 0. 86, p & 0. 001), the Hg data were interpreted using a regional normalisation function with the sum of Al and TOC as the normalisation parameters. Total Hg contents of the Wangerland core were correlated better to Al contents (r2 = 0. 70, p & 0. 001) than to the sum of TOC and Al contents (r2 = 0. 63, p & 0. 05). Therefore, Hg contents in sediments of the Wangerland core were normalised to Al contents. Comparison between enrichment factors and the background range of the sediment cores suggested that Jade Bay was contaminated about 50 years ago, and that Wangerland, or the catchment area of Jade Bay, was contaminated about 300 years ago, if no diagenetic remobilization occurred. Conclusions: Total Hg contents of both cores were low and of no concern to the aquatic environment of Jade Bay. The Hg record was in good agreement with the history of industrial development in the region; thus, Hg deposition could have occurred through atmospheric input, ammunition residues of the Second World War and volcanic emanations, as well as through diagenetic remobilization. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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