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Karimi E.,Guelph Waterloo Center for Graduate Work in Chemistry | Karimi E.,University of Guelph | Briens C.,University of Western Ontario | Briens C.,Institute for Chemicals and Fuels from Alternative Resources ICFAR | And 7 more authors.
Energy and Fuels

Hemp-seed pyrolysis bio-oil was upgraded in a batch laboratory-scale pressure reactor under 800 psi (cold) hydrogen gas at 350-365 °C using a non-alkaline, nontoxic FexOy/SiO2/TiO 2 catalyst [reduced red mud (RRM)] obtained by the reduction of red mud with HOAc/HCCOH. The upgraded liquid obtained was separated into stable organic and aqueous phases. Comparative analyses between the crude oil and the organic and aqueous phases of upgraded products showed that the RRM-upgraded bio-oil is composed of fewer carbonyl-containing and polar oxygenated compounds but more saturated hydrocarbons. The upgraded oil phases are less viscous than the native oil and stable against resin formation for at least 60 days. The catalytic activity of RRM is related to its ability to catalyze both deoxygenation and cracking reactions that convert reactive components (aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids), which make the oil unstable over time, into less reactive deoxygenated products. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Resende E.C.D.,University of Guelph | Resende E.C.D.,Federal University of Lavras | Gissane C.,University of Guelph | Nicol R.,University of Guelph | And 8 more authors.
Green Chemistry

The production of the aluminum metal from bauxite ore and bio-diesel from triglyceride oils both generate large waste streams, and their management and valuation is therefore of great interest in Brazil and any other country with established or developing bio-fuel and aluminum industries. The integration of these two waste streams into the development of alternative technologies that utilize wastes as low-cost materials could potentially contribute to economic development as well as chemical sustainability and minimize the environmental and ecological impact of these industries. In this study, a crude untreated bio-diesel plant waste stream consisting of glycerol, methanol, free fatty acid salts and water was co-processed with Red Mud, the highly alkaline by-product of bauxite refining through the Bayer Process, at elevated temperature and pressure (350 to 400 °C; 0-500 psi hydrogen gas) in an attempt to synergistically produce value-added products from these two waste streams. Comparative analysis between untreated and upgraded materials was performed by CHN EA, TGA, TPR, SEM, MS, FT-IR, Karl-Fischer-Titration, and 1H/13C NMR. The products obtained showed an increase in carbon and hydrogen content in both the organic product phase and the Red Mud catalyst recovered. Also observed in the organic phases was an increase in the paraffin content relative to starting material as determined by NMR with a concomitant reduction of the alcohol content confirming glycerol and methanol conversion. The Red Mud recovered after every upgrading reaction showed a change of color to dark gray to black, magnetic and amphiphilic properties, as well as a substantial decrease in its alkalinity and an increase in its carbon content. Catalyst recycling reactions were performed highlighting the possibility that the Red Mud could be reused as a catalyst promoting an increase in the observed crude glycerol conversion to paraffins potentially usable as a low-grade heavy fuel oil. This journal is © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Schlaf M.,University of Guelph | Schlaf M.,University of Western Ontario | Schlaf M.,Institute for Chemicals and Fuels from Alternative Resources ICFAR | Schlaf M.,University of Toronto | And 32 more authors.
ACS National Meeting Book of Abstracts

We recently identified Red Mud, an alkaline, but non-toxic waste by-product of the Bayer bauxite refining process composed of Fe, Ti, Si, Ca, Na and K oxides and produced at > 70 million tons/year, as an effective catalyst for the total decomposition of HCOOH and HOAc to acetone, alkenes and alkanes at T > 350 °C with the HCOOH serving as an internal source of hydrogen via syngas and the WGSR. The catalyst also shows good activity in the upgrading of actual pyrolysis bio-oil resulting in a substantial decrease of the viscosity of the oil, a reduction of the tar/oxygenated compound content of the product and phase separation into a non-polar hydrocarbon and polar aqueous phase. In the process of using it as a catalyst the Red Mud itself is transformed into a non-alkaline reduced magnetic material with possible uses as a building material or iron or titanium ore. Source

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