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Sivakumar M.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Sivakumar M.,University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus | Towata A.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Yasui K.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | And 5 more authors.
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry | Year: 2010

Fine particles of rutile TiO2 supporting nanosized particles of Pt were prepared by a simultaneous in situ sonochemical reduction and deposition method using a standing wave sonochemical reactor (SWSR). The mean diameter of sonochemically obtained Pt particles are of 2 nm. Following this sonochemical technique, rutile TiO2 was also deposited with different weight percentages of Pt. Catalytic function of the prepared composite catalysts were tested by the oxidation of CO to CO2. From the catalytic activity results, it has been found out that the catalysts prepared by the sonochemical method exhibited higher catalytic activity for CO oxidation, probably attributed to the higher Pt particle distribution achieved under sonication. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) were employed to characterize the resulting material. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Larrinaga G.,University of the Basque Country | Sanz B.,University of the Basque Country | Blanco L.,University of the Basque Country | Perez I.,University of the Basque Country | And 5 more authors.
Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Objective: To analyze the mRNA and protein expression of cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) and renal oncocytoma (RO). Design and methods: Fresh and formalin-fixed tissue samples of ChRCC and RO were analyzed by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical techniques (n. = 40). Results: Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that CB1 mRNA was underexpressed by 12-fold in ChRCC and had a variable expression in RO. CB1 protein showed intense positive immunostaining in both neoplasms. Both CB2 mRNA and protein were not expressed in tumor and non tumor renal tissue. Conclusion: This distinct immunoprofile may eventually be used as an additional tool with practical interest in the differential diagnosis of renal tumors. © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Source


Larrinaga G.,University of the Basque Country | Sanz B.,University of the Basque Country | Perez I.,University of the Basque Country | Blanco L.,University of the Basque Country | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry | Year: 2010

Several studies in cell cultures and in animal models have demonstrated that cannabinoids have important antitumoral properties. Because many of these effects are mediated through cannabinoid (CB) receptors CB1 and CB2, the study of their expression in human neoplasms has become of great interest in recent years. Fresh and formalin-fixed tissue samples of 20 consecutive clear cell renal cell carcinomas (CCRCCs) were collected prospectively and analyzed for the expression of both CB receptors by using RT-PCR, Western blot (WB), and immunohistochemical techniques. RT-PCR assays demonstrated the expression of mRNA encoding the CB1 in tumor tissue and in adjacent non-neoplastic kidney. Conversely, WB and IHC revealed a marked downregulation of CB1 protein in tumor tissue; CB2 was not expressed. The obtained data suggest a possible implication of the endocannabinoid system in renal carcinogenesis. A posttranscriptional downregulation of CB1 and the absence of expression of CB2 characterize CCRCC. © 2010 Larrinaga et al. Source


Larrinaga G.,University of the Basque Country | Varona A.,University of the Basque Country | Perez I.,University of the Basque Country | Sanz B.,University of the Basque Country | And 5 more authors.
Histology and Histopathology | Year: 2010

The presence of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors and their physiological role in the kidney has been described in animal models but not in humans. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the presence of these receptors in human kidney, adult and fetal. For this purpose, RT-PCR, western-blot and immunohistochemical assays were performed. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of CB1 receptor mRNA receptor and the absence of the CB2 receptor mRNA in adult and fetal kidney. Western-blot and immunohistochemical assays revealed the presence of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor protein, which displayed a similar distribution in fetal and adult kidneys. Proximal and distal convoluted tubule cells and intercalated cells in the collecting ducts showed marked positivity. Conversely, the CB2 cannabinoid receptor protein was consistently negative in all cases. Our data suggest a possible implication of the endocannabinoid system in the physiology and development of the human kidney. Source


Pais V.F.,University of Huelva | Lassaletta J.M.,Institute for Chemical Research | Fernandez R.,University of Seville | El-Sheshtawy H.S.,South Valley University | And 2 more authors.
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2014

Borylated arylisoquinolines with redshifted internal charge-transfer (ICT) emission were prepared and characterized. Upon heating, significant fluorescence quenching was observed, which forms the basis for a molecular thermometer. In the investigated temperature range (283-323 K) an average sensitivity of -1.2 to -1.8 % K-1 was found for the variations in fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime. In the physiological temperature window (298-318 K) the average sensitivity even reaches values of up to -2.4 % K-1. The thermometer function is interpreted as the interplay between excited ICT states of different geometry. In addition, the formation of an intramolecular Lewis pair can be followed by 11B NMR spectroscopy. This provides a handle to monitor temperature-dependent ground-state geometry changes of the dyes. The role of steric hindrance is addressed by the inclusion of a derivative that lacks the Lewis pair formation. Getting warmer: A series of molecular fluorescent thermometers with good to very good sensitivity is reported. Borylated arylisoquinolines show pronounced fluorescence quenching upon heating (see figure), which can be reverted by cooling. The analysis of kinetic parameters revealed the involvement of a thermally activated nonradiative excited-state decay channel. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

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