Sajdak M.,Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis | Year: 2017
Co-pyrolysis of lignin-rich materials with two types of plastic waste blends was evaluated. Blend 1 (B1) comprised 30% m/m styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR, from rubber granules used tires), 40% m/m polyethylene terephthalate (PET, from scrap bottles), and 30% m/m polypropylene (PP, from scrap bumpers). Blend 2 (B2) comprised 40% m/m PET (from scrap bottles), 30% m/m PP (from automotive scrap), and 30% m/m acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS, from automotive scrap). The lignin-rich materials evaluated were wood biomass, agrarian biomass, and waste from furniture. The feedstock-to-product energy conversion efficiency (FP-ECE) was also studied. Samples were thermally treated from room temperature to 400 or 600 °C at a heating rate of 10 °C min−1 under N2 at a flow rate of 3 dm3 min−1. In light of the experimental results, an appropriate temperature for the fixed-bed pyrolysis of biomass-plastic mixtures with various ratios was determined and the raw materials were pyrolysed under the same conditions. The solid (char), liquid and gaseous products of pyrolysis were analysed. The pyrolysis experiments and analysis of variance showed that the combination of biomass with plastic materials had a positive effect on the liquid and gas yields. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.
Al-Mansour F.,Jozef Stefan Institute |
Zuwala J.,Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2010
Reduction of the emissions of greenhouses gases, increasing the share of renewable energy sources (RES) in the energy balance, increasing electricity production from renewable energy sources and decreasing energy dependency represent the main goals of all current strategies in Europe. Biomass co-firing in large coal-based thermal power plants provides a considerable opportunity to increase the share of RES in the primary energy balance and the share of electricity from RES in gross electricity consumption in a country. Biomass-coal co-firing means reducing CO2 and SO2, emissions and it may also reduce NOx emissions, and also represents a near-term, low-risk, low-cost and sustainable energy development. Biomass-coal co-firing is the most effective measure to reduce CO2 emissions, because it substitutes coal, which has the most intensive CO2 emissions per kWh electricity production, by biomass, with a zero net emission of CO2. Biomass co-firing experience worldwide are reviewed in this paper. Biomass co-firing has been successfully demonstrated in over 150 installations worldwide for most combinations of fuels and boiler types in the range of 50-700 MWe, although a number of very small plants have also been involved. More than a hundred of these have been in Europe. A key indicator for the assessment of biomass co-firing is intrduced and used to evaluate all available biomass co-firing technologies. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lasek J.,National Taiwan University |
Lasek J.,Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal |
Yu Y.-H.,National Taiwan University |
Wu J.C.S.,National Taiwan University
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry Reviews | Year: 2013
The photocatalytic methods for nitrogen oxides removal were recently very intense areas of scientific research. Photo-deNOx processes offer interesting ways for abatement of these harmful gases. This review describes several methods for removing NO by photocatalytic reactions. These methods can be classified into three major groups: photo selective catalytic reduction (photo-SCR), photo-oxidation and photo-decomposition. The application of photocatalysts and photo-processes for NOx abatement in real-scale cases are presented. The fast-growing development of these methods is revealed by the large number of issued patents in photo-deNOx applications. The mechanism of NO creation and the traditional methods (primary and secondary) of NOx removal are summarized and discussed. A cooperative system that combines the traditional (thermal) process and a photo-process is then proposed for improving NOx removal efficiency. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Ksepko E.,Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2014
This paper contains the results of research on chemical-looping combustion (CLC). CLC is one of the most promising combustion technologies and has the main advantage of producing a concentrated CO2 stream, which is obtained after water condensation and without any energy penalty for CO2 separation. The objective of this work was to study the chemical-looping reaction performance of novel perovskite-type oxygen carriers. The Sr(Mn 1-xNix)O3 family was tested for its suitability as an oxygen carrier in hydrogen (syngas component) combustion for power generation. Sr(Mn1-xNix)O3 perovskite-type oxides with x = 0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0 were prepared. Thermogravimetric measurements were performed to investigate the oxidation/reduction of the obtained materials. Reactivity tests were performed under isothermal conditions during multiple redox cycles using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). For the reduction reaction, 3% H2 in Ar was used, and air was used for the oxidation cycle. The effect of reaction temperature (600-800 °C) and the number of reducing/oxidizing cycles (up to 5 cycles) on the performance of the oxygen-carrier samples developed in this study were evaluated. The stability, oxygen transport capacity, and reaction rates were analyzed on the basis of thermogravimetric TG results. The Sr(Mn1-xNix)O 3 oxides showed stable chemical-looping performance with rapid changes in their oxygen content (2-3 min) while maintaining their chemical properties. The cyclic redox reaction revealed that Sr(Mn1-xNi x)O3 exhibits excellent structural stability and provides a continuous oxygen supply during redox reactions. Good oxygen capacity was maintained during the cycling hydrogen combustion tests. These new perovskite-type materials were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and by surface area (BET), particle size distribution (PSD) and melting behavior analyses. The Sr(Mn 1-xNix)O3 oxides exhibited high melting temperatures and small surface areas. The promising results obtained from chemical-looping combustion experiments indicate that the Sr(Mn 1-xNix)O3 oxides are potentially useful oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion processes where hydrogen is one of the fuel components. © 2014, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ksepko E.,Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal |
Sciazko M.,Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal |
Babinski P.,Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal
Applied Energy | Year: 2014
This paper contains the results of research work on chemical looping combustion (CLC). CLC is one of the most promising combustion technologies and has the main advantage of the production of a concentrated CO2 stream, which is obtained after water condensation without any energy penalty for CO2 separation. The objective of this work was to study the kinetics of both the reduction and oxidation reactions for the selected bi-metallic Fe2O3-CuO/Al2O3 and mono-metallic Fe2O3/TiO2 oxygen carriers. Based on our previous CLC research results, the most promising oxygen carriers were selected for the analysis. Tests were performed at isothermal conditions (600-950°C) in multiple redox cycles using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (Netzsch STA 409 PG Luxx). For the reduction, 3% H2 in Ar was used, and for the oxidation cycle, air was used. The activation energy and the pre-exponential factor were determined, and the reaction model was selected. The F1 (volumetric model) and R3 (shrinking core model) were suitable models for Fe2O3/TiO2, with Ea equal to 33.8kJ/mole where F1 and D3 (3-dimensional diffusion model), were suitable for Fe2O3-CuO/Al2O3 reduction reaction kinetics decryption with Ea=42.6kJ/mole (F1 model). The best fits for oxidation reaction was obtained for R3 model, and F1 was also good for Fe2O3/TiO2 oxygen carrier. The chemical looping oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) effect of Fe2O3-CuO/Al2O3 material is the best described by the F1 or D3 models. The CLOU effect activation energy is equal to 22.2kJ/mole. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Zuwala J.,Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2012
Generation of near CO2 free energy (electricity and heat) in existing large co-generation technologies can be achieved by partial substitution of fossil fuels with biomass commonly regarded as CO 2-neutral fuel. Co-firing of biomass with fossil fuels aims at reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and nonrenewable fuel resources depletion. Life cycle analysis was carried out for hard coal and two biomass sorts of different origin (willow chips and residual wood chips) requiring a diverse approach for their upstream inventory of non-renewable energy resources depletion and GHG emission. These fuels are co-combusted in a combined heat and power plant (CHP plant) for generation of electricity and heat. As in the case of cogeneration process, it was necessary to allocate the harmful effects between both energy carriers. Allocation of the burdens basing on the principle of the avoided process has been proposed. The empirical correlations concerning the electricity consumption of boiler auxiliaries' and boiler energy efficiency along with the increasing share of biomass in the fuel blend were applied in the calculations. The functional unit chosen to compare the results was 1 TJ of heat. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to bring the final conclusions and recommendations. Both environmental burdens (non-renewable resources depletion and the greenhouse effect) are dependant on the share of biomass in the combusted blend. It was proved, that the partial substitution of coal with biomass (in the considered range of 0-20% on the thermal basis) leads to the decrease of the total life-cycle non-renewable energy resources depletion and cumulative GHG emissions for generation and supply of 1 MJ of heat (functional unit) and 1 MWh of electricity generated during multifunctional process of combined heat and power generation. Residual biomass shows its advantages over dedicated energy crops (on the example of willow biomass). Additionally, it has been proved, that the share of operational component dominates in the total system burdens concerning the regarded life cycle. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ksepko E.,Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry | Year: 2014
In this paper, novel low-cost oxygen carriers containing Fe 2O3 are evaluated for use in chemical looping combustion. Sewage sludge ashes and reference samples were prepared and used in cyclic reduction and oxidation experiments in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TG). A gaseous (3 % H2) fuel and a solid fuel (hard coal) were tested. Three-cycle CLC tests were carried out in the 600-800 °C temperature range and long-term testing was performed at 950 °C. A reactivity study showed that the natural sewage sludge ash sample was stable during the cycling TG tests when hydrogen was used as a fuel at all of the temperatures investigated. Strong temperature effects on the oxygen transport capacity were observed. An onecycle test at 900 °C showed also that the sewage sludge ash successfully reacted with coal. The oxygen released was fully used for coal combustion, with appreciable reaction rate at temperature of ~750-800 °C, that is significantly lower than that obtained for pure Fe2O3-based oxygen carrier. The oxidation reaction was much faster than the reduction reaction. Moreover, the sewage sludge ash showed a low tendency toward agglomeration in the cyclic test, which was superior to the behavior of synthetic materials. The sewage sludge ash exhibited also high mechanical strength, an attrition index of 1 % and a hightemperature resistance of 1,170 °C in a reducing atmosphere. We conclude that sewage sludge ash can be effectively used as a low-cost, valuable oxygen carrier in practical application in chemical looping combustion technology for power generation. © Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2014.
Sajdak M.,Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal
Central European Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2013
The aim of this work was to implement a chemometric analysis to detect the relationships between the analysed variables in samples of solid fuels. Efforts are being made to apply chemometrics methods in environmental issues by developing methods for the rapid assessment of solid fuels and their compliance with the required emission characteristics regulations. In the present investigation, two clustering techniques - hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and principal components analysis (PCA) - are used to obtain the linkage between solid fuel properties and the type of sample. These analyses allowed us to detect the relationships between the studied parameters of the investigated solid fuels. Furthermore, the usefulness of chemometrics methods for identification of the origin of biofuels is shown. These methods will enable control of the degree of contamination. © 2013 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.
Sciazko M.,Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal
Fuel | Year: 2013
In the study, the enthalpy of formation of a complex chemical compound, such as coal, was defined as the difference between the experimentally determined heat of combustion and the thermodynamically calculated heat of combustion of the elementary reactants. The boundary conditions for the approach were defined by the enthalpy of formation of graphite; thus, the aforementioned method should produce a value of zero for graphite. Using the developed correlation for the enthalpy of formation, a model of coal classification was developed based on this thermodynamic quantity, which reflects the structure and technological suitability of coal. According to the analysis of the enthalpy of formation with respect to the composition of coal, the enthalpy of formation may have negative or positive values, depending on the type of fuel. Furthermore, changes in the formation enthalpy are continuous but correspond to different chemical structures. The following values for the enthalpy of formation were obtained: anthracite = +250 kJ/kg, peat < -3200 kJ/kg and medium volatile bituminous coal ~zero. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sajdak M.,Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal |
Muzyka R.,Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis | Year: 2014
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of using polypropylene, a common polymer used in the polymer industry, in the co-pyrolysis of two types of biomass. This study is crucial because different types of biomass exhibit different behaviours, which are mainly influenced by the chemical composition of the material (amount of cellulose, lignocellulose and hemicellulose). In our previous study, polymer addition to biomass led to synergistic effects, as determined by variations in the amounts of products obtained from the co-pyrolysis of biomass and polypropene relative to those obtained from the pyrolysis of pure biomass or polypropylene. In this work, the effects of using polymer material as an additional eco-fuel on the thermal conversion process are discussed. The addition of polypropylene reduces the amount of heat energy needed in the thermal conversion of biomass. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.