Frankfurt am Main, Germany
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Urbich C.,Institute for Cardiovascular Regeneration | De Souza A.I.,St George's, University of London | Rossig L.,Institute for Cardiovascular Regeneration | Yin X.,King's College London | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology | Year: 2011

Early pro-angiogenic cells (EPCs) have been shown to be involved in neovascularization, angiogenesis and re-endothelialization and cathepsin L inhibition blunted their pro-angiogenic effect. In the present study, we have analysed and mapped the proteome and secretome of human EPCs, utilizing a combination of difference in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and shotgun proteomics. A population of 206 protein spots were analysed, with 171 being identified in the cellular proteome of EPCs. 82 proteins were identified in their conditioned medium, including the alternative macrophage markers C-C motif chemokine 18 (CCL18) and the hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 as well as platelet factor 4 (CXCL4) and platelet basic protein (CXCL7) with "platelet alpha granule" being returned as the top category according to the Gene Ontology Annotation. Apart from cathepsin L, the cathepsin L inhibitor also attenuated the release of a wide range of other cathepsins and lysosomal proteins such as legumain, but stimulated the secretion of members of the S100 protein family. The data presented here are the most comprehensive characterization of protein expression and secretion in human EPCs to date and highlight the potential importance of cysteine proteases in the processing of platelet factors for their pro-angiogenic potential. This article is part of a special issue entitled, "Cardiovascular Stem Cells Revisited". © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Institute for Cardiovascular Regeneration, University of Cologne, University of Hamburg, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical chemistry | Year: 2015

The limit of detection (LoD) is the minimal amount of a substance that can be consistently detected. In the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) many patients present with troponin concentrations below the LoD of contemporary sensitive cardiac troponin I (cs-cTnI) assays. These censored values below the LoD influence the diagnostic performance of these assays compared to highly sensitive cTnI (hs-cTnI) assays. Therefore we assessed the impact of a new approach for interpolation of the left-censored data of a cs-cTnI assay in the evaluation of patients with suspected AMI.Our posthoc analysis used a real world cohort of 1818 patients with suspected MI. Data on cs-cTnI was available in 1786 patients. As a comparator the hs-cTnI version of the assay was used. To reconstruct quantities below the LoD of the cs-cTnI assay, a gamma regression approach incorporating the GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) score variables was used.Censoring of cs-cTnI data below the LoD yielded weaker diagnostic information [area under the curve (AUC), 0.781; 95% CI, 0.731-0.831] regarding AMI compared to the hs-cTnI assay (AUC, 0.949; CI, 0.936-0.961). Use of our model to estimate cs-cTnI values below the LoD showed an AUC improvement to 0.921 (CI, 0.902-0.940). The cs-cTnI LoD concentration had a negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.950. An estimated concentration that was to be undercut by 25% of patients presenting with suspected AMI was associated with an improvement of the NPV to 0.979.Estimation of values below the LoD of a cs-cTnI assay with this new approach improves the diagnostic performance in evaluation of patients with suspected AMI.


Fadini G.P.,University of Padua | Fadini G.P.,Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine | Albiero M.,Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine | Seeger F.,Institute for Cardiovascular Regeneration | And 18 more authors.
Basic Research in Cardiology | Year: 2013

Bone marrow (BM) derived stem and progenitor cells contribute to cardiovascular homeostasis and are affected by cardiovascular risk factors. We devised a clinical data-driven approach to test candidate stem cell mobilizing mechanisms in pre-clinical models. We found that PB and BM CD34+ cell counts were directly correlated, and that most circulating CD34+ cells were viable, non-proliferating and derived from the BM. Thus, we analyzed PB and BM CD34+ cell levels as a two-compartment model in 72 patients with or without cardiovascular disease. Self-organizing maps showed that disturbed compartmentalization of CD34+ cells was associated with aging and cardiovascular risk factors especially diabetes. High activity of DPP-4, a regulator of the mobilizing chemokine SDF-1α, was associated with altered stem cell compartmentalization. For validation of these findings, we assessed the role of DPP-4 in the BM mobilization response of diabetic rats. Diabetes differentially affected DPP-4 activity in PB and BM and impaired stem/progenitor cell mobilization after ischemia or G-CSF administration. DPP-4 activity in the BM was required for the mobilizing effect of G-CSF, while in PB it blunted ischemia-induced mobilization. Indeed, DPP-4 deficiency restored ischemia (but not G-CSF)-induced stem cell mobilization and improved vascular recovery in diabetic animals. In conclusion, the analysis of stem cell compartmentalization in humans led us to discover mechanisms of BM unresponsiveness in diabetes determined by tissue-specific DPP-4 dysregulation. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Fadini G.P.,University of Padua | Fadini G.P.,Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine | Albiero M.,University of Padua | Albiero M.,Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine | And 27 more authors.
Circulation Research | Year: 2011

Rationale: Acquisition of a procalcific phenotype by resident or circulating cells is important for calcification of atherosclerotic plaques, which is common in diabetes. Objective: We aim to identify and characterize circulating calcifying cells, and to delineate a pathophysiological role for these cells in type 2 diabetes. Methods and Results: We demonstrate for the first time that a distinct subpopulation of circulating cells expressing osteocalcin and bone alkaline phosphatase (OC+BAP+) has procalcific activity in vitro and in vivo. The study of naïve patients with chronic myeloid leukemia indicated that OC+BAP+ cells have a myeloid origin. Myeloid calcifying OC+BAP+ cells (MCCs) could be differentiated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and generation of MCCs was closely associated with expression of the osteogenic transcription factor Runx2. In gender-mismatched bone marrow-transplanted humans, circulating MCCs had a much longer half-life compared with OC -BAP- cells, suggesting they belong to a stable cell repertoire. The percentage of MCCs was higher in peripheral blood and bone marrow of type 2 diabetic patients compared with controls but was lowered toward normal levels by optimization of glycemic control. Furthermore, diabetic carotid endoarterectomy specimens showed higher degree of calcification and amounts of cells expressing OC and BAP in the α-smooth muscle actin-negative areas surrounding calcified nodules, where CD68+ macrophages colocalize. High glucose increased calcification by MCCs in vitro, and hypoxia may regulate MCC generation in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions: These data identify a novel type of blood-derived procalcific cells potentially involved in atherosclerotic calcification of diabetic patients. © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.


Fadini G.P.,University of Padua | Fadini G.P.,Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine | De Kreutzenberg S.V.,University of Padua | Boscaro E.,University of Padua | And 16 more authors.
Diabetologia | Year: 2013

Aim/hypothesis: Monocytes/macrophages play important roles in adipose and vascular tissues and can be polarised as inflammatory M1 or anti-inflammatory M2. We sought to analyse monocyte polarisation status in type 2 diabetes, which is characterised by chronic inflammation. Methods: We enrolled 60 individuals without diabetes and 53 patients with type 2 diabetes. We quantified standard monocyte subsets defined by cluster of differentiation (CD)14 and CD16. In addition, based on the phenotype of polarised macrophages in vitro, we characterised and quantified more definite M1 (CD68+CCR2+) and M2 (CX3CR1+CD206+/CD163+) monocytes. We also analysed bone marrow (BM) samples and the effects of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) stimulation in diabetic and control individuals. Results: We found no alterations in standard monocyte subsets (classical, intermediate and non-classical) when comparing groups. For validation of M1 and M2 phenotypes, we observed that M2 were enriched in non-classical monocytes and had lower TNF-α content, higher LDL scavenging and lower transendothelial migratory capacity than M1. Diabetic patients displayed an imbalanced M1/M2 ratio compared with the control group, attributable to a reduction in M2. The M1/M2 ratio was directly correlated with waist circumference and HbA 1c and, among diabetic patients, M2 reduction and M1/M2 increase were associated with microangiopathy. A decrease in M2 was also found in the BM from diabetic patients, with a relative M2 excess compared with the bloodstream. BM stimulation with G-CSF mobilised M2 macrophages in diabetic but not in healthy individuals. Conclusions/interpretation: We show that type 2 diabetes markedly reduces anti-inflammatory M2 monocytes through a dysregulation in bone-marrow function. This defect may have a negative impact on microangiopathy. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Seeger T.,Institute for Cardiovascular Regeneration
European journal of heart failure | Year: 2013

Ageing of the immune system, immunosenescence, is characterized by impaired lymphopoiesis, especially B-lymphocyte maturation, and is a hallmark of chronic heart failure (CHF). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding, small RNAs, which post-transcriptionally control gene expression of multiple target genes. The miR-181 family is known to control haematopoietic lineage differentiation. Here, we study the role of the miR-181 family in immunosenescence and CHF. We conducted a clinical study analysing peripheral blood (PB) for miRNA expression and leucocyte distribution of young healthy controls (25 ± 4 years; n = 30), aged healthy controls (64 ± 5 years; n = 13), and age-matched CHF patients (64 ± 11years; n = 18). The expression of miR-181 family members was reduced, whereas miR-34a was increased in PB of aged individuals. In particular, miR-181c was further reduced in age-matched CHF patients. In PB, we observed reduced numbers of lymphocytes, in particular cytotoxic T cells and B cells, with rising age, and the expression of miR-181 correlated with the number of B cells. Notably, in CHF patients, ischaemic heart failure was associated with a further reduction of total B cells as well as their subpopulations, such as memory B cells, compared with age-matched healthy volunteers. Ageing- and CHF-associated changes in PB leucocyte subsets are paralleled by alterations in the expression of miRNAs involved in lymphopoiesis, which might play an important role in the age-related and CHF-mediated dysregulation of immune functions resulting in immunosenescence. Furthermore, miR-181c may serve as a marker for reduced immune functions in CHF patients.


PubMed | Institute for Cardiovascular Regeneration
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Circulation | Year: 2012

Cell therapy with bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMCs) can improve recovery of cardiac function after ischemia; however, the molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression and modulate the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases.We demonstrated that intramyocardial delivery of BMCs in infarcted mice regulates the expression of cardiac miRNAs and significantly downregulates the proapoptotic miR-34a. In vitro studies confirmed that the supernatant of BMC inhibited the expression of H(2)O(2)-induced miR-34a and cardiomyocytes apoptosis. These effects were blocked by neutralizing antibodies directed against insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Indeed, IGF-1 significantly inhibited H(2)O(2)-induced miR-34a expression, and miR-34a overexpression abolished the antiapoptotic effect of IGF-1. Likewise, inhibition of IGF-1 signaling in vivo abolished the BMC-mediated inhibition of miR-34 expression and the protective effect on cardiac function and increased apoptosis and cardiac fibrosis. IGF-1 specifically blocked the expression of the precursor and the mature miR-34a, but did not interfere with the transcription of the primary miR-34a demonstrating that IGF-1 blocks the processing of miR-34a.Together, our data demonstrate that the paracrine regulation of cardiac miRNAs by transplanted BMCs contributes to the protective effects of cell therapy. BMCs release IGF-1, which inhibits the processing of miR-34a, thereby blocking cardiomyocyte apoptosis.


PubMed | Institute for Cardiovascular Regeneration and Goethe University Frankfurt
Type: | Journal: Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology | Year: 2016

Heart failure due to myocardial infarction is a major cause of mortality. The microRNA (miR) family let-7 is expressed during embryonic development and is up-regulated in differentiated cells. The aim of this study was to study the role of let-7 after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We designed an antimiR to inhibit the highest expressed members of the let-7 family, let-7 a, b and c. Administration at day 0 and day 2 after AMI resulted in sustained knockdown of let-7 after 28days. Let-7 inhibition prevented deterioration of cardiac functions compared to control treatment which was especially due to improvements in the infarcted, apical cardiac segments. We observed higher contents of fibrosis in the border zone as well as increased numbers of cells positive for TCF21, which is also expressed in epicardial cells. Markers were augmented after let-7 inhibition and let-7 blocked EMT in epicardial cells in vitro. Lineage tracing in TCF21(iCre/+):R26R(tdT) mice showed abundant tomato positive cells in the infarct and border zone. In conclusion, let-7 inhibition resulted in functional benefits due to an increase in recruitment of epicardial cells and EMT.


PubMed | Institute for Cardiovascular Regeneration
Type: Journal Article | Journal: European journal of heart failure | Year: 2013

Ageing of the immune system, immunosenescence, is characterized by impaired lymphopoiesis, especially B-lymphocyte maturation, and is a hallmark of chronic heart failure (CHF). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding, small RNAs, which post-transcriptionally control gene expression of multiple target genes. The miR-181 family is known to control haematopoietic lineage differentiation. Here, we study the role of the miR-181 family in immunosenescence and CHF.We conducted a clinical study analysing peripheral blood (PB) for miRNA expression and leucocyte distribution of young healthy controls (25 4 years; n = 30), aged healthy controls (64 5 years; n = 13), and age-matched CHF patients (64 11years; n = 18). The expression of miR-181 family members was reduced, whereas miR-34a was increased in PB of aged individuals. In particular, miR-181c was further reduced in age-matched CHF patients. In PB, we observed reduced numbers of lymphocytes, in particular cytotoxic T cells and B cells, with rising age, and the expression of miR-181 correlated with the number of B cells. Notably, in CHF patients, ischaemic heart failure was associated with a further reduction of total B cells as well as their subpopulations, such as memory B cells, compared with age-matched healthy volunteers.Ageing- and CHF-associated changes in PB leucocyte subsets are paralleled by alterations in the expression of miRNAs involved in lymphopoiesis, which might play an important role in the age-related and CHF-mediated dysregulation of immune functions resulting in immunosenescence. Furthermore, miR-181c may serve as a marker for reduced immune functions in CHF patients.


Seeger T.,Institute for Cardiovascular Regeneration | Seeger T.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Xu Q.-F.,Institute for Cardiovascular Regeneration | Muhly-Reinholz M.,Institute for Cardiovascular Regeneration | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology | Year: 2016

Heart failure due to myocardial infarction is a major cause of mortality. The microRNA (miR) family let-7 is expressed during embryonic development and is up-regulated in differentiated cells. The aim of this study was to study the role of let-7 after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We designed an antimiR to inhibit the highest expressed members of the let-7 family, let-7 a, b and c. Administration at day 0 and day 2 after AMI resulted in sustained knockdown of let-7 after 28 days. Let-7 inhibition prevented deterioration of cardiac functions compared to control treatment which was especially due to improvements in the infarcted, apical cardiac segments. We observed higher contents of fibrosis in the border zone as well as increased numbers of cells positive for TCF21, which is also expressed in epicardial cells. Markers were augmented after let-7 inhibition and let-7 blocked EMT in epicardial cells in vitro. Lineage tracing in TCF21iCre/+:R26RtdT mice showed abundant tomato positive cells in the infarct and border zone. In conclusion, let-7 inhibition resulted in functional benefits due to an increase in recruitment of epicardial cells and EMT. © 2016.

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