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Machado R.D.,University of Lincoln | Southgate L.,Queen Mary, University of London | Southgate L.,Kings College London | Eichstaedt C.A.,University of Heidelberg | And 24 more authors.
Human Mutation

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an often fatal disorder resulting from several causes including heterogeneous genetic defects. While mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR2) gene are the single most common causal factor for hereditary cases, pathogenic mutations have been observed in approximately 25% of idiopathic PAH patients without a prior family history of disease. Additional defects of the transforming growth factor beta pathway have been implicated in disease pathogenesis. Specifically, studies have confirmed activin A receptor type II-like 1 (ACVRL1), endoglin (ENG), and members of the SMAD family as contributing to PAH both with and without associated clinical phenotypes. Most recently, next-generation sequencing has identified novel, rare genetic variation implicated in the PAH disease spectrum. Of importance, several identified genetic factors converge on related pathways and provide significant insight into the development, maintenance, and pathogenetic transformation of the pulmonary vascular bed. Together, these analyses represent the largest comprehensive compilation of BMPR2 and associated genetic risk factors for PAH, comprising known and novel variation. Additionally, with the inclusion of an allelic series of locus-specific variation in BMPR2, these data provide a key resource in data interpretation and development of contemporary therapeutic and diagnostic tools. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Ojeda F.M.,University of Hamburg | Muller C.,University of Hamburg | Muller C.,German Center for Cardiovascular Research | Bornigen D.,University of Hamburg | And 10 more authors.
Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics

Prognostic models based on survival data frequently make use of the Cox proportional hazards model. Developing reliable Cox models with few events relative to the number of predictors can be challenging, even in low-dimensional datasets, with a much larger number of observations than variables. In such a setting we examined the performance of methods used to estimate a Cox model, including (i) full model using all available predictors and estimated by standard techniques, (ii) backward elimination (BE), (iii) ridge regression, (iv) least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso), and (v) elastic net. Based on a prospective cohort of patients with manifest coronary artery disease (CAD), we performed a simulation study to compare the predictive accuracy, calibration, and discrimination of these approaches. Candidate predictors for incident cardiovascular events we used included clinical variables, biomarkers, and a selection of genetic variants associated with CAD. The penalized methods, i.e., ridge, lasso, and elastic net, showed a comparable performance, in terms of predictive accuracy, calibration, and discrimination, and outperformed BE and the full model. Excessive shrinkage was observed in some cases for the penalized methods, mostly on the simulation scenarios having the lowest ratio of a number of events to the number of variables. We conclude that in similar settings, these three penalized methods can be used interchangeably. The full model and backward elimination are not recommended in rare event scenarios. © 2016 The Authors. Source

Suchon P.,Aix - Marseille University | Suchon P.,Laboratory of Hematology | Al Frouh F.,Aix - Marseille University | Henneuse A.,Aix - Marseille University | And 14 more authors.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis

Identifying women at risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major public health issue. The objective of this study was to identify environmental and genetic determinants of VTE risk in a large sample of women under combined oral contraceptives (COC). A total of 968 women who had had one event of VTE during COC use were compared to 874 women under COC but with no personal history of VTE. Clinical data were collected and a systematic thrombophilia screening was performed together with ABO blood group assessment. After adjusting for age, family history, and type and duration of COC use, main environmental determinants of VTE were smoking (odds ratio [OR] =1.65, 95 % confidence interval [1.30-2.10]) and a body mass index higher than 35 kg.m-2 (OR=3.46 [1.81-7.03]). In addition, severe inherited thrombophilia (OR=2.13 [1.32-3.51]) and non-O blood groups (OR=1.98 [1.57-2.49]) were strong genetic risk factors for VTE. Family history poorly predicted thrombophilia as its prevalence was similar in patients with or without first degree family history of VTE (29.3 % vs 23.9 %, p=0.09). In conclusion, this study confirms the influence of smoking and obesity and shows for the first time the impact of ABO blood group on the risk of VTE in women under COC. It also confirms the inaccuracy of the family history of VTE to detect inherited thrombophilia. © Schattauer 2016. Source

Viguerie N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Viguerie N.,University Paul Sabatier | Montastier E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Montastier E.,University Paul Sabatier | And 25 more authors.
PLoS Genetics

Weight control diets favorably affect parameters of the metabolic syndrome and delay the onset of diabetic complications. The adaptations occurring in adipose tissue (AT) are likely to have a profound impact on the whole body response as AT is a key target of dietary intervention. Identification of environmental and individual factors controlling AT adaptation is therefore essential. Here, expression of 271 transcripts, selected for regulation according to obesity and weight changes, was determined in 515 individuals before, after 8-week low-calorie diet-induced weight loss, and after 26-week ad libitum weight maintenance diets. For 175 genes, opposite regulation was observed during calorie restriction and weight maintenance phases, independently of variations in body weight. Metabolism and immunity genes showed inverse profiles. During the dietary intervention, network-based analyses revealed strong interconnection between expression of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis and components of the metabolic syndrome. Sex had a marked influence on AT expression of 88 transcripts, which persisted during the entire dietary intervention and after control for fat mass. In women, the influence of body mass index on expression of a subset of genes persisted during the dietary intervention. Twenty-two genes revealed a metabolic syndrome signature common to men and women. Genetic control of AT gene expression by cis signals was observed for 46 genes. Dietary intervention, sex, and cis genetic variants independently controlled AT gene expression. These analyses help understanding the relative importance of environmental and individual factors that control the expression of human AT genes and therefore may foster strategies aimed at improving AT function in metabolic diseases. © 2012 Viguerie et al. Source

Morange P.-E.,Laboratory of Haematology | Morange P.-E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Morange P.-E.,Aix - Marseille University | Suchon P.,Laboratory of Haematology | And 5 more authors.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis

Venous thrombosis (VT) is a common multifactorial disease with a genetic component that was first suspected nearly 60 years ago. In this review, we document the genetic determinants of the disease, and update recent findings delivered by the application of highthroughput genotyping and sequencing technologies. To date, 17 genes have been robustly demonstrated to harbour genetic variations associated with VT risk: ABO, F2, F5, F9, F11, FGG, GP6, KNG1, PROC, PROCR, PROS1, SERPINC1, SLC44A2, STXBP5, THBD, TSPAN15 and VWF. The common polymorphisms are estimated to account only for a modest part (~5 %) of the VT heritability. Much remains to be done to fully disentangle the exact genetic (and epigenetic) architecture of the disease. A large suite of powerful tools and research strategies can be deployed on the large collections of patients that have already been assembled (and additional are ongoing). © Schattauer 2015. Source

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