Institute for Cancer Studies

United Kingdom

Institute for Cancer Studies

United Kingdom

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Yang X.R.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Chang-Claude J.,Institute of Cancer Research | Goode E.L.,German Cancer Research Center | Nevanlinna H.,Mayo Medical School | And 128 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2011

Background Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer risk factors are associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression status of the tumors. Methods We pooled tumor marker and epidemiological risk factor data from 35568 invasive breast cancer case patients from 34 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Logistic regression models were used in case-case analyses to estimate associations between epidemiological risk factors and tumor subtypes, and case-control analyses to estimate associations between epidemiological risk factors and the risk of developing specific tumor subtypes in 12 population-based studies. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results In case-case analyses, of the epidemiological risk factors examined, early age at menarche (≤12 years) was less frequent in case patients with PR- than PR+ tumors (P =. 001). Nulliparity (P = 3 × 10 -6) and increasing age at first birth (P = 2 × 10-9) were less frequent in ER- than in ER+ tumors. Obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2) in younger women (≤50 years) was more frequent in ER-/PR- than in ER +/PR+ tumors (P = 1 × 10-7), whereas obesity in older women (>50 years) was less frequent in PR- than in PR+ tumors (P = 6 × 10-4). The triple-negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-) or core basal phenotype (CBP; triple-negative and cytokeratins [CK]5/6+ and/or epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR]+) accounted for much of the heterogeneity in parity-related variables and BMI in younger women. Case-control analyses showed that nulliparity, increasing age at first birth, and obesity in younger women showed the expected associations with the risk of ER+ or PR + tumors but not triple-negative (nulliparity vs parity, odds ratio [OR] = 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75 to 1.19, P =. 61; 5-year increase in age at first full-term birth, OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.86 to 1.05, P =. 34; obesity in younger women, OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 0.95 to 1.94, P =. 09) or CBP tumors. Conclusion sThis study shows that reproductive factors and BMI are most clearly associated with hormone receptor-positive tumors and suggest that triple-negative or CBP tumors may have distinct etiology. © 2011 The Author.


Siddiq A.,Imperial College London | Couch F.J.,Mayo Medical School | Chen G.K.,University of Southern California | Lindstrom S.,Harvard University | And 145 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2012

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of breast cancer defined by hormone receptor status have revealed loci contributing to susceptibility of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative subtypes. To identify additional genetic variants for ER-negative breast cancer, we conducted the largest meta-analysis of ER-negative disease to date, comprising 4754 ER-negative cases and 31 663 controls from three GWAS: NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) (2188 ER-negative cases; 25 519 controls of European ancestry), Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC) (1562 triple negative cases; 3399 controls of European ancestry) and African American Breast Cancer Consortium (AABC) (1004 ER-negative cases; 2745 controls). We performed in silico replication of 86 SNPs at P ≤ 1 × 10-5in an additional 11 209 breast cancer cases (946 with ER-negative disease) and 16 057 controls of Japanese, Latino and European ancestry. We identified two novel loci for breast cancer at 20q11 and 6q14. SNP rs2284378 at 20q11 was associated with ER-negative breast cancer (combined two-stage OR = 1.16; P = 1.1 × 10-8) but showed a weaker association with overall breast cancer (OR = 1.08, P = 1.3 × 10-6) based on 17 869 cases and 43 745 controls and no association with ER-positive disease (OR = 1.01, P = 0.67) based on 9965 cases and 22 902 controls. Similarly, rs17530068 at 6q14 was associated with breast cancer (OR = 1.12; P = 1.1 × 10-9), and with both ER-positive (OR = 1.09; P = 1.5 × 10-5) and ER-negative (OR = 1.16, P = 2.5 × 10-7) disease. We also confirmed three known loci associated with ER-negative (19p13) and both ER-negative and ER-positive breast cancer (6q25 and 12p11). Our results highlight the value of large-scale collaborative studies to identify novel breast cancer risk loci. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Camp N.J.,University of Utah | Parry M.,Institute for Cancer Studies | Knight S.,University of Utah | Abo R.,Molecular Therapeutics | And 10 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2012

Background: Multiple genome-wide and candidate gene association studies have been conducted in search of common risk variants for breast cancer. Recent large meta analyses, consolidating evidence from these studies, have been consistent in highlighting the caspase-8 (CASP8) gene as important in this regard. To define a risk haplotype and map the CASP8 gene region with respect to underlying susceptibility variant/s, we screened four genes in the CASP8 region on 2q33-q34 for breast cancer risk. Methods:Twoindependent data sets from the United Kingdom and the United States, including 3,888 breast cancer cases and controls, were genotyped for 45 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNP) in the expanded CASP8 region. SNP and haplotype association tests were carried out using Monte Carlo-based methods. Results: We identified a three-SNP haplotype across rs3834129, rs6723097, and rs3817578 that was significantly associated with breast cancer (P < 5 × 10 -6), with a dominant risk ratio and 95% CI of 1.28 (1.21-1.35) and frequency of 0.29 in controls. Evidence for this risk haplotype was extremely consistent across the two study sites and also consistent with previous data. Conclusion: This three-SNP risk haplotype represents the best characterization so far of the chromosome upon which the susceptibility variant resides. Impact: Characterization of the risk haplotype provides a strong foundation for resequencing efforts to identify the underlying risk variant, which may prove useful for individual-level risk prediction, and provide novel insights into breast carcinogenesis. ©2011 American Association for Cancer Research.


Plummer R.,Northumbria University | Lorigan P.,Christie Hospital | Steven N.,Institute for Cancer Studies | Scott L.,Beatson West of Scotland Oncology Center | And 9 more authors.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Purpose: poly(ADP ribose) polymerase inhibition has been shown to potentiate the cytotoxicity of DNA damaging agents. A phase I study of rucaparib and temozolomide showed that full-dose temozolomide could be given during PARP inhibition. We report the results of a phase II study of intravenous rucaparib 12 mg/m2 and oral temozolomide 200 mg/m2 on days 1-5 every 28 days in patients with advanced metastatic melanoma. Methods: Patients with chemotherapy naïve measurable metastatic melanoma, performance status ≤2 and good end-organ function were recruited. Treatment was given until progression. A two stage phase II design was used, with response rate the primary endpoint. Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were also explored. Results: Forty-six patients were recruited with 37 patients receiving at least 2 cycles and 17 patients at least 6 cycles. Myelosuppression occurred with 25 patients (54 %) requiring a 25 % dose reduction in temozolomide. The response rate was 17.4 %, median time to progression 3.5 months, median overall survival 9.9 months, and 36 % of patients were progression-free at 6 months. Conclusions: This study showed that temozolomide (150-200 mg/m2/day) can safely be given with a PARP inhibitory dose of rucaparib, increasing progression-free survival over historical controls in metastatic melanoma patients. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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