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Laurens F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Aranzana M.J.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Arus P.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Bassi D.,University of Milan | And 14 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

The European fruit industry is facing economic challenges imposed by increasingly fierce international competition and decreasing fruit consumption, societal demand for a more sustainable production, and biological problems caused by climate changes. Releasing new cultivars that meet these challenges is a major goal of all European breeding programmes. However, addressing them has been slow due to the nature of fruit tree breeding: long term, low efficiency and high cost. For the past 15 years, efficient networks of fruit geneticists and genomicists have progressively been built thanks in particular to EU-funded projects. Europe has thus become a leader in research on fruit genetics aimed at enhancing fruit quality traits as well as resistance to biotic stresses. European teams working on fruit genetics have developed up-to-date tools and skills covering most of the "omics" fields as well as statistics and software development. Although fruit breeding is very active in Europe, very few breeding programmes are really using the output of the fruit genetics/genomics research. A few bottlenecks can explain this situation. To solve that, a new European initiative has been set up by the FruitBreedomic. This large collaborative project, has the strategic goal of improving the efficiency of current fruit breeding programmes by bridging the existing gap between molecular genetics research and application in breeding.

Cardoso H.,University of Évora | Doroteia Campos M.,University of Évora | Nothnagel T.,Institute for Breeding Research on Horticultural and Fruit Crops | Arnholdt-Schmitt B.,University of Évora
Plant Genetic Resources: Characterisation and Utilisation | Year: 2011

Alternative oxidase (AOX) has been proposed as a promising functional marker candidate for multiple plant stress behaviour. The present paper describes natural polymorphism in AOX2b of Daucus carota L. (DcAOX2b). Exon-primed intron crossing-PCR (EPIC-PCR) revealed length variation (intron length polymorphisms, ILPs) in intron 1. Six fragment patterns were identified in 40 genotypes. However, no more than two fragments were found per genotype, suggesting the presence of two alleles. The ILPs were able to discriminate between single plant genotypes in cv. Rotin and to distinguish individual wild carrot plants. The repetitive pattern of intron 1 length variation allows the grouping of genotypes for functional analysis in future studies. Sequence analysis in intron 1 of polymorphic but also of obviously identical PCR-fragments revealed underlying high levels of sequence polymorphisms between alleles and genotypes. Variation was due to repetitive insertion/deletion (InDel) events and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The results suggest that high AOX2b gene diversity in D. carota may be a source of functional markers for agronomic traits related to environmental stress responses. © 2011 NIAB.

Nothnagel T.,Institute for Breeding Research on Horticultural and Fruit Crops | Kramer R.,Institute for Breeding Research on Horticultural and Fruit Crops | Budahn H.,Institute for Breeding Research on Horticultural and Fruit Crops | Schrader O.,Institute for Breeding Research on Horticultural and Fruit Crops | And 3 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

The paper reports preliminary results of a research project aiming to improve the genetic basis of garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) for resistance to biotic and abiotic stress as well as quality associated compounds via interspecific and intersubspecific crosses. In the present study, interspecific hybrids between A. albus × A. officinalis, A. maritimus × A. officinalis, A. officinalis × A. verticillatus and A. amarus × A. verticillatus were generated by hand pollination and embryo rescue. The F1 hybrids were analyzed by using molecular and cytological techniques. Whereas the A. albus × A. officinalis hybrid was triploid, the three other hybrids were tetraploid. The morphological characterisation as well as chemical investigation of volatile compounds of the hybrids suggests an intermediate stage between the cross parents. Additionally, the hybrids expressed a number of novel volatile compounds. Potential value of the obtained interspecific hybrids and the further work is discussed.

Hanke M.-V.,Institute for Breeding Research on Horticultural and Fruit Crops | Flachowsky H.,Institute for Breeding Research on Horticultural and Fruit Crops | Hofer M.,Institute for Breeding Research on Horticultural and Fruit Crops | Semenov V.,Research Institute of Plant Industry | And 4 more authors.
Journal fur Kulturpflanzen | Year: 2012

From August 22 to September 4, 2011 a joint expedition of scientists from Germany and Russia of the Julius Kühn-Institut (JKI) and the Nikolaj I. Vavilov Research Institute of Plant Industry (VIR) into North Caucasus has been taken place. The expedition was aimed on collection of fruit genetic resources in this region and their introduction into national collections for fruit genetic resources of both countries. Subsequently, the collected material will be evaluated by the participating partners regarding sources of agronomical important traits in order to provide new resources for breeding purposes.

Ulrich D.,Plant Analysis and Stored Product Protection | Dunemann F.,Institute for Breeding Research on Horticultural and Fruit Crops
Flavour and Fragrance Journal | Year: 2012

Improving flavour quality of apple varieties is an important but complex breeding goal. Flavour is among the key factors of apple fruit quality but in spite of the analytical and biochemical knowledge about volatiles little is known about the genetic and molecular basis of apple aroma. The aim of this paper is to give an overview about the complex analytical investigations on metabolite patterns, quantitative trait locus mapping and development of a first functional marker for acetate esters with high sensory impact based on single nucleotide polymorphisms within a candidate gene encoding a key enzyme involved in the last step of ester biosynthesis (alcohol acyl-transferase, MdAAT1). © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PubMed | Institute for Breeding Research on Horticultural and Fruit Crops
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The New phytologist | Year: 2011

Breeding of apple (Malus domestica) remains a slow process because of protracted generation cycles. Shortening the juvenile phase to achieve the introgression of traits from wild species into prebreeding material within a reasonable time frame is a great challenge. In this study, we evaluated early flowering transgenic apple lines overexpressing the BpMADS4 gene of silver birch with regard to tree morphology in glasshouse conditions. Based on the results obtained, line T1190 was selected for further analysis and application to fast breeding. The DNA sequences flanking the T-DNA were isolated and the T-DNA integration site was mapped on linkage group 4. The inheritance and correctness of the T-DNA integration were confirmed after meiosis. A crossbred breeding programme was initiated by crossing T1190 with the fire blight-resistant wild species Malus fusca. Transgenic early flowering F(1) seedlings were selected and backcrossed with Regia and 98/6-10 in order to introgress the apple scab Rvi2, Rvi4 and powdery mildew Pl-1, Pl-2 resistance genes and the fire blight resistance quantitative trait locus FB-F7 present in Regia. Three transgenic BC1 seedlings pyramiding Rvi2, Rvi4 and FB-F7, as well as three other BC1 seedlings combining Pl-1 and Pl-2, were identified. Thus, the first transgenic early flowering-based apple breeding programme combined with marker-assisted selection was established.

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