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Berlowitz D.J.,Institute for Breathing and Sleep
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) severely comprises respiratory function due to paralysis and impairment of the respiratory muscles. Various types of respiratory muscle training (RMT) to improve respiratory function for people with cervical SCI have been described in the literature. A systematic review of this literature is needed to determine the effectiveness of RMT (either inspiratory or expiratory muscle training) on pulmonary function, dyspnoea, respiratory complications, respiratory muscle strength, and quality of life for people with cervical SCI. To evaluate the efficacy of RMT versus standard care or sham treatments in people with cervical SCI. We searched the Cochrane Injuries and Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Groups' Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2012, Issue 1), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, PubMed, and clinical trials registries (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ClinicalTrials, Controlled Trials metaRegister) on 5 to 8 March 2013. We handsearched reference lists of relevant papers and literature reviews. We applied no date, language, or publication restrictions. All randomised controlled trials that involved an intervention described as RMT versus a control group using an alternative intervention, placebo, usual care, or no intervention for people with cervical SCI were considered for inclusion. Two review authors independently selected articles for inclusion, evaluated the methodological quality of the studies, and extracted data. We sought additional information from the trial authors when necessary. We presented results using mean differences (MD) (using post-test scores) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for outcomes measured using the same scale or standardised mean differences (SMD) and 95% CI for outcomes measured using different scales. We included 11 studies with 212 participants with cervical SCI. The meta-analysis revealed a statistically significant effect of RMT for three outcomes: vital capacity (MD mean end point 0.4 L, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.69), maximal inspiratory pressure (MD mean end point 10.50 cm/H2O, 95% CI 3.42 to 17.57), and maximal expiratory pressure (MD mean end point 10.31 cm/H2O, 95% CI 2.80 to 17.82). There was no effect on forced expiratory volume in one second or dyspnoea. We could not combine the results from quality of life assessment tools from three studies for meta-analysis. Respiratory complication outcomes were infrequently reported and thus we could not include them in the meta-analysis. Instead, we described the results narratively. We identified no adverse effects as a result of RMT in cervical SCI. In spite of the relatively small number of studies included in this review, meta-analysis of the pooled data indicates that RMT is effective for increasing respiratory muscle strength and perhaps also lung volumes for people with cervical SCI. Further research is needed on functional outcomes following RMT, such as dyspnoea, cough efficacy, respiratory complications, hospital admissions, and quality of life. In addition, longer-term studies are needed to ascertain optimal dosage and determine any carryover effects of RMT on respiratory function, quality of life, respiratory morbidity, and mortality. Source

Quanjer P.H.,Erasmus Medical Center | Pretto J.J.,John Hunter Hospital | Pretto J.J.,University of Newcastle | Brazzale D.J.,Austin Hospital | And 2 more authors.
European Respiratory Journal

The objective of this study was to redesign the current grading of obstructive lung disease so that it is clinically relevant and free of biases related to age, height, sex and ethnic group. Spirometric records from 17 880 subjects (50.4% female) from hospitals in Australia and Poland, and 21 191 records (53.0% female) from two epidemiological studies (age range 18-95 years) were analysed. We adopted the American Thoracic Society(ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) criteria for airways obstruction based on an forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/(forced) vital capacity ((F)VC) ratio below the fifth percentile and graded the severity of pulmonary function impairment using z-scores for FEV1, which signify how many standard deviations a result is from the mean predicted value. Using the lower limit of normal for FEV1/(F)VC and z-scores for FEV1 of -2, -2.5, -3 and -4 to delineate severity grades of airflow limitation leads to close agreement with ATS/ERS severity classifications and removes age, sex and height related bias. The new classification system is simple, easily memorised and clinically valid. It retains previously established associations with clinical outcomes and avoids biases due to the use of per cent predicted FEV1. Combined with the Global Lung Function prediction equations it provides a worldwide diagnostic standard, free of bias due to age, height, sex and ethnic group. Copyright © ERS 2014. Source

Jordan A.S.,University of Melbourne | Jordan A.S.,Institute for Breathing and Sleep | McSharry D.G.,Harvard University | Malhotra A.,Harvard University | Malhotra A.,University of California at San Diego
The Lancet

Obstructive sleep apnoea is an increasingly common disorder of repeated upper airway collapse during sleep, leading to oxygen desaturation and disrupted sleep. Features include snoring, witnessed apnoeas, and sleepiness. Pathogenesis varies; predisposing factors include small upper airway lumen, unstable respiratory control, low arousal threshold, small lung volume, and dysfunctional upper airway dilator muscles. Risk factors include obesity, male sex, age, menopause, fluid retention, adenotonsillar hypertrophy, and smoking. Obstructive sleep apnoea causes sleepiness, road traffic accidents, and probably systemic hypertension. It has also been linked to myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, and diabetes mellitus though not definitively. Continuous positive airway pressure is the treatment of choice, with adherence of 60-70%. Bi-level positive airway pressure or adaptive servo-ventilation can be used for patients who are intolerant to continuous positive airway pressure. Other treatments include dental devices, surgery, and weight loss. Source

Quanjer P.H.,Erasmus Medical Center | Brazzale D.J.,Institute for Breathing and Sleep | Boros P.W.,National Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Research Institute | Pretto J.J.,John Hunter Hospital
European Respiratory Journal

The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic and interpretative consequences of adopting the Global Lungs Initiative (GLI) 2012 spirometric prediction equations. We assessed spirometric records from 17 572 subjects (49.5% females), aged 18-85 years, from hospitals in Australia and Poland. We calculated predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced expiratory volume (FVC), FEV1/ FVC and lower limits of normal (LLN) using European Community for Steel and Coal (ECSC), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III and GLI 2012 equations. Obstruction was defined as FEV1/FVCLLN and FVC20% underdiagnosis of airway obstruction up to the age of 55 years and to 16-23% overdiagnosis in older subjects. GLI 2012 equations increase the prevalence of a "restrictive spirometric pattern" compared to ECSC but decrease it compared to NHANES. Copyright ©ERS 2013. Source

Peyton P.J.,Austin Health | Peyton P.J.,University of Melbourne | Peyton P.J.,Institute for Breathing and Sleep | Wu C.Y.,University of Melbourne

BACKGROUND:: Inclusion of nitrous oxide in the gas mixture has been implicated in postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in numerous studies. However, these studies have not examined whether duration of exposure was a significant covariate. This distinction might affect the future place of nitrous oxide in clinical practice. METHODS:: PubMed listed journals reporting trials in which patients randomized to a nitrous oxide or nitrous oxide-free anesthetic for surgery were included, where the incidence of PONV within the first 24 postoperative hours and mean duration of anesthesia was reported. Meta-regression of the log risk ratio for PONV with nitrous oxide (lnRR PONVN2O) versus duration was performed. RESULTS:: Twenty-nine studies in 27 articles met the inclusion criteria, randomizing 10,317 patients. There was a significant relationship between lnRR PONVN2O and duration (r = 0.51, P = 0.002). Risk ratio PONV increased 20% per hour of nitrous oxide after 45 min. The number needed to treat to prevent PONV by avoiding nitrous oxide was 128, 23, and 9 where duration was less than 1, 1 to 2, and over 2 h, respectively. The risk ratio for the overall effect of nitrous oxide on PONV was 1.21 (CIs, 1.04-1.40); P = 0.014. CONCLUSIONS:: This duration-related effect may be via disturbance of methionine and folate metabolism. No clinically significant effect of nitrous oxide on the risk of PONV exists under an hour of exposure. Nitrous oxide-related PONV should not be seen as an impediment to its use in minor or ambulatory surgery. © 2014 American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc. Source

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