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Rathmann W.,Institute for Biometrics and Epidemiology | Haastert B.,MediStatistica | Oscarsson J.,Astrazeneca | Berglind N.,Astrazeneca | Wareham N.J.,University of Cambridge

Background/objectives: Faecal elastase 1 (FE1) was inversely correlated with diabetes duration and HbA1c in type 2 diabetes. The association of FE1 and HbA1c has not been investigated in people without diabetes. Methods: Type 2 diabetes patients (oral antidiabetic drugs or insulin: n = 391; medically untreated: n = 145) and matched (age, sex, practice) people without diabetes (n = 529) from general practices in Cambridgeshire (UK) were included. FE1 measurements (μg/g stool) were performed centrally (ScheBo-Tech Institute, Wettenberg, Germany). Linear regression models were fitted using FE1 as dependent variable and HbA1c, diabetes (no, untreated diabetes, treated diabetes) and interactions as independent variables. Potential confounders were sex, age, BMI, current alcohol consumption, smoking, triglycerides, and amylase. Results: In univariate linear regression models, HbA1c was significantly inversely related to FE1 in controls (β-coefficient: -108.74, p < 0.0001), whereas no significant associations were found for the diabetes groups. The inverse relationship of HbA1c with FE1 concentrations in people without diabetes persisted after adjusting for potential confounders in multivariate regression (β-coefficient: -109.18, p < 0.0001). In people without diabetes, there were lower FE1 concentrations among those with increased diabetes risk (HbA1c 5.7%-6.4% [38.8-46.4 mmol/mol]: 395 ± 204 μg/g vs. HbA1c ≤ 5.6% [≤37.7 mmol/mol]: 476 ± 219 μg/g; p < 0.0001). The prevalence of FE1. <. 100 μg/g was significantly increased among persons with an HbA1c of 5.7%-6.4% (38.8-46.4 mmol/mol) compared with those with a normal HbA1c ≤ 5.6% (≤37.7 mmol/mol) (6.1% vs. 1.4%; p = 0.004). Conclusion/interpretation: The present study suggests that pancreatic exocrine dysfunction might be an early disturbance that develops in parallel with hyperglycemia. © 2015 IAP and EPC. Source

Beyer P.,Protestant Hospital | Heidtmann B.,Catholic Childrens Hospital Wilhelmstift | Rosenbauer J.,Institute for Biometrics and Epidemiology | Holl R.W.,University of Ulm
Pediatric Diabetes

Objective: Initiation of continuous subcutaneous insulin therapy (CSII) requires an appropriate basal rate profile. Different approaches exist; however, there is a lack of evidence-based recommendations, especially in young children. Study design: In this large multicenter survey, 5941 CSII patients from the German/Austrian prospective documentation system (DPV) were analyzed. Patients were divided into four age groups: <6 yr (n = 837), 6 to <12 yr (n = 1739), 12 to <18 yr (n = 2985) and 18 to <25 yr (n = 380). Basal insulin requirement and diurnal distribution were evaluated based on the most recent documentation for each patient. Results: Basal insulin requirement differed significantly between the four age groups (<6: 0.25 ± 0.12; 6 to <12: 0.33 ± 0.12; 12 to <18: 0.43 ± 0.15; 18 to <25: 0.35 ± 0.13 U/kg; p < 0.001). Circadian insulin profiles were markedly different between the younger and older age groups. In addition to age, longer diabetes duration, female gender, higher HbA1c and lower body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) were related to higher basal insulin requirement per kilogram of body weight. Conclusions: Age of the patient is the primary factor that influences both total daily requirement and circadian distribution of basal insulin in CSII. Experience from a large database may therefore facilitate the initiation of pump therapy in pediatric patients. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Kostev K.,IMS Health | Dippel F.W.,Sanofi S.A. | Rathmann W.,Institute for Biometrics and Epidemiology
Primary Care Diabetes

Aims To identify patient-related characteristics and other impact factors predicting early discontinuation of basal insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes in primary care. Methods A total of 4837 patients who started basal insulin therapy (glargine: n = 3175; NPH: n = 1662) in 1072 general and internal medicine practices throughout Germany were retrospectively analyzed (Disease Analyser Database: 01/2008-03/2014). Early discontinuation was defined as switching back to oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD) therapy within 90 days after first basal insulin prescription (index date, ID). Patient records were assessed 365 days prior and post ID. Logistic regression models were used to adjust for age, sex, diabetes duration, diabetologist care, disease management program participation, HbA1c, and comorbidity. Results Within 3 months after ID, 202 (6.8%) of glargine patients switched back to OAD (NPH: 130 (8.5%); p < 0.05). In multivariable logistic regression, predictors of early basal insulin discontinuation were ≥1 documented hypoglycemia before ID (adjusted Odds ratio; 95% CI: 2.20; 1.27-3.82), diagnosed depression (1.31; 1.01-1.70) and referrals to specialists within 90 days after ID (2.06; 1.61-2.63). Diabetologist care (0.57; 0.36-0.89) and glargine treatment (vs. NPH: 0.78; 0.61-0.98) were related to a lower odds of having early insulin discontinuation. Conclusions Less than 10% of type 2 diabetes patients switched back to oral antidiabetic drugs within 90 days after start of basal insulin therapy. In particular, patients with baseline depression and frequent or severe hypoglycemia have a higher likelihood for early discontinuation of basal insulin, whereas use of insulin glargine and diabetologist care are related to an increased chance of continuous insulin treatment. © 2015 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Heidemann C.,Robert Koch Institute | Niemann H.,Robert Koch Institute | Paprott R.,Robert Koch Institute | Du Y.,Robert Koch Institute | And 2 more authors.
Diabetic Medicine

Aims: To investigate whether an indicator of overall traffic intensity is related to the risk of Type 2 diabetes in a nationwide cohort. Methods: The study population comprised 3604 adults aged 18-79 years and without diabetes from the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey (GNHIES98, 1997-1999) who participated again in a follow-up survey (DEGS1, 2008-2011). The association between the participants' reported traffic intensity at their residential address and Type 2 diabetes incidence was examined using logistic regression models. Results: During a mean of 12.1 years of follow-up, 252 of the participants included in the study developed Type 2 diabetes. Compared with people living in traffic-calmed areas, odds ratios were 1.15 (95% CI 0.80-1.67) for people living on moderately busy side streets, 1.11 (95% CI 0.69-1.80) for people living on considerably busy side streets, 1.41 (95% CI 0.96-2.08) for people living on heavily busy roads, and 1.97 (95% CI 1.07-3.64) for people living on extremely busy roads, after adjusting for age, sex, active and passive smoking, type of heating, education, BMI, waist circumference, sport activity and parental diabetes history. Conclusions: The twofold higher risk of Type 2 diabetes observed for people exposed to intense traffic in this nationwide cohort extends the limited evidence from previous selected populations. Although the underlying traffic-related components and their biological mechanisms still need to be unravelled, traffic exposure control should be considered in public health strategies to reduce the global burden of diabetes. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Czabanka M.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Pena-Tapia P.,University of Heidelberg | Schubert G.A.,University of Heidelberg | Heppner F.L.,Institute for Neuropathology | And 4 more authors.
Cerebrovascular Diseases

Background: Moyamoya disease (MMD) is graded based on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with limited clinical applications. The aim was to identify clinically relevant parameters that may be used to develop a novel MMD grading system. Methods: In 40 MMD patients bilateral revascularization surgery was performed. Clinical data including DSA, MRI and regional cerebral blood flow studies were assessed. χ 2 test corrected for dependency of measurements at the same subject and analysis of receiver operating characteristics were used to identify key parameters. Grading system included: DSA (stenosis/occlusion = 1 point; stenosis/occlusion + intracranial compensation = 2 points; stenosis/occlusion + intracranial compensation + extra-intracranial compensation = 3 points), MRI (no sign of ischemia = 0 points; signs of ischemia = 1 point) and cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC > -5% = 0 points; CVRC < -5% = 2 points). MMD grade I referred to 1-2 points, grade II to 3-4 and grade III to 5-6 points. Results: DSA, MRI and CVRC were dependent factors associated with the occurrence of clinical symptoms. Receiver operating characteristics analysis indentified the grading system as superior to each single parameter in predicting clinical symptoms. Fourteen hemispheres were graded as mild (grade I), 35 as moderate (grade II) and 31 as severe (grade III); 21% of grade I, 63% of grade II and 93% of grade III hemispheres were clinically symptomatic. Conclusions: The proposed grading system allows to stratify for clinical symptomatology in MMD patients. Future studies will have to investigate its value for assessing clinical symptoms and treatment risks. © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

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