Institute for Biomedical Problems
Institute for Biomedical Problems
Strewe C.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich |
Feuerecker M.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich |
Nichiporuk I.,Institute for Biomedical Problems |
Kaufmann I.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich |
And 4 more authors.
Reviews in the Neurosciences | Year: 2012
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) plays an important role in the regulation of physiological functions, from stress and memory regulation to vegetative control and immunity. The ECS is considered a central and peripheral stress response system to emotional or physical challenges and acts through endocannabinoids (ECs), which bind to their receptors inducing subsequent effecting mechanisms. In our studies, the ECS responses have been assessed through blood concentrations of the ECs anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. In parallel, saliva cortisol was determined and the degree of perceived stress was quantified by questionnaires. This report summarizes the reactivity of the ECS in humans subjected to brief periods of kinetic stress and weightlessness during parabolic flights and to prolonged stress exposure during life onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Both conditions resulted in a significant increase in circulating ECs. Under the acute stress during parabolic flights, individuals who showed no evidence of motion sickness were in low-stress conditions and had a significant increase of plasma ECs. In contrast, highly stressed individuals with severe motion sickness had an absent EC response and a massive increase in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Likewise, chronic but well-tolerated exposure to weightlessness and emotional and environmental stressors on the ISS for 6 months resulted in a sustained increase in EC blood concentrations, which returned to baseline values after the cosmonauts' return. These preliminary results suggest that complex environmental stressors result in an increase of circulating ECs and that enhanced EC signaling is probably required for adaptation and tolerance under stressful conditions.
PubMed | University of Lyon, Institute for Biomedical Problems, University of Angers, Institute for Space Medicine and Physiology MEDES and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: European journal of applied physiology | Year: 2016
Walking is a complex locomotor process that involves both spinal cord reflexes and cortical integration of peripheral nerve input. Maintaining an upright body position requires not only neuromuscular activity but also cardiovascular regulation. We postulated that plantar mechanical stimulation might modulate autonomic nervous system activity and, thereby, impact blood pressure adaptation during standing.Twelve healthy subjects underwent three randomly ordered 45-min 70-saddle tilt tests while the plantar surfaces of the feet were stimulated using specially engineered Korvit boots in the following modes: (1) no stimulation, (2) disrupted stimulation, and (3) walking mode. Orthostatic tolerance time was measured for each trial. During testing, we obtained an electrocardiogram and measured blood pressure, skin blood flow, and popliteal vein cross-sectional area. We estimated central hemodynamics, baroreflex sensitivity and heart rate variability.Orthostatic tolerance time was not found to differ significantly between test conditions (37.210.4, 40.97.6, and 41.88.2min, for no stimulation, disrupted stimulation, and walking mode, respectively). No significant differences between treatment groups were observed for stroke volume or cardiac baroreflex sensitivity, both of which decreased significantly from baseline during tilt testing in all groups. Cardiac sympathetic index and popliteal vein cross-sectional area increased at the end of the tilt period in all groups, without significant differences between treatments.Plantar mechanical stimulation is insufficient for immediate modulation of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic activity under orthostatic stress.
Ahmetov I.I.,Institute of Physical Culture |
Druzhevskaya A.M.,Institute of Physical Culture |
Astratenkova I.V.,Institute of Physical Culture |
Popov D.V.,Institute for Biomedical Problems |
And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2010
Objective: The functional 577R allele of the α-actinin-3 (ACTN3) gene has been reported to be associated with elite power athlete status, while the nonfunctional 577XX genotype (predicts an α-actinin-3 deficient phenotype) has been hypothesised as providing some sort of advantage for endurance athletes. In the present study, the distribution of ACTN3 genotypes and alleles in Russian endurance-oriented athletes were examined and association between ACTN3 genotypes and the competition results of rowers were sought. Methods: 456 Russian endurance-oriented athletes of regional or national competitive standard were involved in the study. ACTN3 genotype and allele frequencies were compared with 1211 controls. The data from the Russian Cup Rowing Tournament were used to search for possible association between the ACTN3 genotype and the longdistance (∼6 km) rowing results of 54 athletes. DNA was extracted from mouthwash samples. Genotyping for the R577X variant was performed by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion. Results: The frequencies of the ACTN3 577XX genotype (5.7% vs 14.5%; p<0.0001) and 577X allele (33.2% vs 39.0%; p = 0.0025) were significantly lower in endurance-oriented athletes compared with the controls, and none of the highly elite athletes had the 577XX genotype. Furthermore, male rowers with ACTN3 577RR genotype showed better results (1339 (11) s) in long-distance rowing than carriers of 577RX (1386 (12) s) or 577XX (1402 (10) s) genotypes (p = 0.016). Conclusion: Our data show that the ACTN3 577X allele is under-represented in Russian endurance athletes and is associated with the rowers' competition results.
Snigiryova G.P.,Federal State Institution |
Novitskaya N.N.,Federal State Institution |
Fedorenko B.S.,Institute for Biomedical Problems
Advances in Space Research | Year: 2012
Purpose: To evaluate radiation induced chromosome aberration frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes of cosmonauts who participated in flights on Mir Orbital Station and ISS (International Space Station). Materials and methods: Cytogenetic examination which has been performed in the period 1992-2008 included the analysis of chromosome aberrations using conventional Giemsa staining method in 202 blood samples from 48 cosmonauts who participated in flights on Mir Orbital Station and ISS. Results: Space flights led to an increase of chromosome aberration frequency. Frequency of dicentrics plus centric rings (Dic+Rc) depend on the space flight duration and accumulated dose value. After the change of space stations (from Mir Orbital Station to ISS) the radiation load of cosmonauts based on data of cytogenetic examination decreased. Extravehicular activity also adds to chromosome aberration frequency in cosmonauts' blood lymphocytes. Average doses after the first flight, estimated by the frequency of Dic+Rc, were 227 and 113 mGy Eq for long-term flights (LTF) and 107 and 53 mGy Eq for short-term flights (STF). Conclusion: Cytogenetic examination of cosmonauts can be applied to assess equivalent doses. © 2012 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tomilovskaya E.S.,Institute for Biomedical Problems |
Berger M.,Innsbruck Institute of Space Neurology |
Gerstenbrand F.,Innsbruck Institute of Space Neurology |
Kozlovskaya I.B.,Innsbruck Institute of Space Neurology
Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium and Orientation | Year: 2013
The aim of the study was to examine effects of long-duration exposure to weightlessness on characteristics of the vertical gaze fixation reaction (GFR). The subjects were to perform the target acquisition task on visual stimuli that appeared at a distance of 16 deg. up- and down from the primary position in a random order. Experiments were performed before launch, during flight and after landing. Before flight time of gaze fixation reaction did not exceed 650 ms. During space flight (SF) it extended up to 900-1000 ms and more. The velocities of head movement in space decreased, but the velocities of eye counterrotation decreased to a lesser degree. This difference resulted in sharp increase of vertical vestibular ocular reflex (VOR) gain (up to 4.3 values in one of the cosmonauts) during the 1st month of flight; further it decreased reaching the values of 0.5-0.7 on the 5th month of SF. After landing vertical VOR gain increased greatly again. These results in the vertical axis are in agreement with the data of Kozlovskaya et al., which showed in experiments with monkeys that horizontal VOR gain increased together with redundant inadequate responses of vestibular nucleus on vestibular stimulation and that in the course of adaptation to these conditions central nervous system inhibited vestibular input from the motor control system. © 2013 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.
Grigoriev A.,Institute for Biomedical Problems |
Potapov A.,FSC RF
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2012
The sine qua non condition for piloted missions to Mars or other objects of the solar system including asteroids is availability of suitable biomedical systems. The design concept should be built with reference to the known factors of such missions, their duration, environment on terrestrial bodies, and time crew will stay there. Many aspects of the biomedical systems developed and realized aboard orbital stations, the International space station in the first place, deserve to be regarded as predecessors of the systems for health monitoring and maintenance of future exploration crews. At the same time, there are issues and tasks which have not been yet fully resolved. Specifically, these are prevention of the adverse changes in body systems and organs due to microgravity, reliable protection from the spectrum of space radiation, and elucidation of possible effects of hypomagnetic environment. We should not walk away from search and development of key biomedical technologies such as a system of automated fitness evaluation and a psychodiagnostic complex for testing and optimization of operator's efficiency, and others. We have to address a large number of issues related to designing composite life support systems with high autonomy, closure and ecological safety of human environment that will provide transformation of all kinds of waste. Another crucial task is to define a concept of the onboard medical center and dataware including the telemedicine technology. All the above developments should assimilate the most recent achievements in physiology, molecular biology, genetics and advanced medical technologies. Biomedical researches on biosatellites do not lose topicality. An important step toward designing and enhancement of biomedical systems for exploration missions was made in the Mars-500 project carried out at the Institute of Biomedical Problems in Moscow. The experiment furnished valuable observations of the relationship within the human-environment system and a wealth of data about health and performance of people living in the conditions of artificial environment and isolation. The experiment reproduced several features of exploration mission including very long duration, autonomy, and work on the Martian surface. It provided an opportunity to test some countcrmeasures to negative health developments, and to verify and upgrade telemedicine technologies, to validate stand-alone systems of psychological support, and numerous technologies and equipment for life support. Also, new data on mechanisms of body adaptation in the course of long-term simulation experiment were acquired. ©(2012) by the International Astronautieal Federation.
Khristenko N.A.,Luxembourg Institute of Health |
Khristenko N.A.,University of Luxembourg |
Larina I.M.,Institute for Biomedical Problems |
Domon B.,Luxembourg Institute of Health |
Domon B.,University of Luxembourg
Journal of Proteome Research | Year: 2016
Urine is a valuable material for the diagnosis of renal pathologies and to investigate the effects of their treatment. However, the variability in protein abundance in the context of normal homeostasis remains a major challenge in urinary proteomics. In this study, the analysis of urine samples collected from healthy individuals, rigorously selected to take part in the MARS-500 spaceflight simulation program, provided a unique opportunity to estimate normal concentration ranges for an extended set of urinary proteins. In order to systematically identify and reliably quantify peptides/proteins across a large sample cohort, a targeted mass spectrometry method was developed. The performance of parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) analyses was improved by implementing tight control of the monitoring windows during LC-MS/MS runs, using an on-the-fly correction routine. Matching the experimentally obtained MS/MS spectra with reference fragmentation patterns allowed dependable peptide identifications to be made. Following optimization and evaluation, the targeted method was applied to investigate protein abundance variability in 56 urine samples, collected from six volunteers participating in the MARS-500 program. The intrapersonal protein concentration ranges were determined for each individual and showed unexpectedly high abundance variation, with an average difference of 1 order of magnitude. © 2015 American Chemical Society.
Yi B.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich |
Titze J.,The Interdisciplinary Center |
Titze J.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg |
Titze J.,Vanderbilt University |
And 7 more authors.
Translational Research | Year: 2015
Increasing evidence indicated that excess salt consumption can impose risks on human health and a reduction in daily salt intake from the current average of approximately 12 g/d to 5-6 g/d was suggested by public health authorities. The studies on mice have revealed that sodium chloride plays a role in the modulation of the immune system and a high-salt diet can promote tissue inflammation and autoimmune disease. However, translational evidence of dietary salt on human immunity is scarce. We used an experimental approach of fixing salt intake of healthy human subjects at 12, 9, and 6 g/d for months and examined the relationship between salt-intake levels and changes in the immune system. Blood samples were taken from the end point of each salt intake period. Immune phenotype changes were monitored through peripheral leukocyte phenotype analysis. We assessed immune function changes through the characterization of cytokine profiles in response to mitogen stimulation. The results showed that subjects on the high-salt diet of 12 g/d displayed a significantly higher number of immune cell monocytes compared with the same subjects on a lower-salt diet, and correlation test revealed a strong positive association between salt-intake levels and monocyte numbers. The decrease in salt intake was accompanied by reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-23, along with enhanced producing ability of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. These results suggest that in healthy humans high-salt diet has a potential to bring about excessive immune response, which can be damaging to immune homeostasis, and a reduction in habitual dietary salt intake may induce potentially beneficial immune alterations. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.
Ambrozova I.,Nuclear Physics Institute of Czech Republic |
Brabcova K.,Nuclear Physics Institute of Czech Republic |
Spurny F.,Nuclear Physics Institute of Czech Republic |
Shurshakov V.A.,Institute for Biomedical Problems |
And 2 more authors.
Radiation Protection Dosimetry | Year: 2011
To estimate the radiation risk of astronauts during space missions, it is necessary to measure dose characteristics in various compartments of the spacecraft; this knowledge can be further used for estimating the health hazard in planned missions. This contribution presents results obtained during several missions on board the International Space Station (ISS) during 2005-09. A combination of thermoluminescent and plastic nuclear track detectors was used to measure the absorbed dose and dose equivalent. These passive detectors have several advantages, especially small dimensions, which enabled their placement at various locations in different compartments inside the ISS or inside the phantom. Variation of dosimetric quantities with the phase of the solar cycle and the position inside the ISS is discussed.
PubMed | Institute for Biomedical Problems and Luxembourg Institute of Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of proteome research | Year: 2016
Urine is a valuable material for the diagnosis of renal pathologies and to investigate the effects of their treatment. However, the variability in protein abundance in the context of normal homeostasis remains a major challenge in urinary proteomics. In this study, the analysis of urine samples collected from healthy individuals, rigorously selected to take part in the MARS-500 spaceflight simulation program, provided a unique opportunity to estimate normal concentration ranges for an extended set of urinary proteins. In order to systematically identify and reliably quantify peptides/proteins across a large sample cohort, a targeted mass spectrometry method was developed. The performance of parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) analyses was improved by implementing tight control of the monitoring windows during LC-MS/MS runs, using an on-the-fly correction routine. Matching the experimentally obtained MS/MS spectra with reference fragmentation patterns allowed dependable peptide identifications to be made. Following optimization and evaluation, the targeted method was applied to investigate protein abundance variability in 56 urine samples, collected from six volunteers participating in the MARS-500 program. The intrapersonal protein concentration ranges were determined for each individual and showed unexpectedly high abundance variation, with an average difference of 1 order of magnitude.