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Engineering, United Kingdom

Fernandez-Rodriguez M.A.,University of GranadaGranada | Ramos J.,University of the Basque Country | Ramos J.,Institute for Biomedical Engineering | Isa L.,ETH Zurich | And 3 more authors.
Langmuir | Year: 2015

Surface heterogeneity affects the behavior of nanoparticles at liquid interfaces. To gain a deeper understanding on the details of these phenomena, we have measured the interfacial activity and contact angle at water/decane interfaces for three different types of nanoparticles: homogeneous poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), silica functionalized with a capping ligand containing a methacrylate terminal group, and Ag-based Janus colloids with two capping ligands of different hydrophobicity. The interfacial activity was analyzed by pendant drop tensiometry, and the contact angle was measured directly by freeze-fracture shadow-casting cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The silver Janus nanoparticles presented the highest interfacial activity, compared to the silica nanoparticles and the homogeneous PMMA nanoparticles. Additionally, increasing the bulk concentration of the PMMA and silica nanoparticles up to 100-fold compared to the Janus nanoparticles led to silica particles forming fractal-like structures at the interface, contrary to the PMMA particles that did not show any spontaneous adsorption. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source


Spescha R.D.,University of Zurich | Klohs J.,Institute for Biomedical Engineering | Semerano A.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Giacalone G.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | And 21 more authors.
European Heart Journal | Year: 2015

Aim Constitutive genetic deletion of the adaptor protein p66Shc was shown to protect from ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Here,we aimed at understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect in stroke and studied p66Shc gene regulation in human ischaemic stroke. Methods and results Ischaemia/reperfusion brain injury was induced by performing a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery on wild-type mice. After the ischaemic episode and upon reperfusion, small interfering RNA targeting p66Shcwas injected intravenously. We observed that post-ischaemic p66Shc knockdown preserved blood-brain barrier integrity that resulted in improved stroke outcome, as identified by smaller lesion volumes, decreased neurological deficits, and increased survival. Experiments on primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells demonstrated that silencing of the adaptor protein p66Shc preserves claudin-5 protein levels during hypoxia/reoxygenation by reducing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity and reactive oxygen species production. Further, we found that in peripheral blood monocytes of acute ischaemic stroke patients p66Shc gene expression is transiently increased and that this increase correlates with short-term neurological outcome. Conclusion Post-ischaemic silencing of p66Shc upon reperfusion improves stroke outcome in mice while the expression of p66Shcgene correlates with short-term outcome in patients with ischaemic stroke. © The Author 2015. Source


Maraghechi B.,Ryerson University | Hasani M.H.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Kolios M.C.,Ryerson University | Tavakkoli J.,Ryerson University | Tavakkoli J.,Institute for Biomedical Engineering
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2016

Ultrasound-based thermometry requires a temperature-sensitive acoustic parameter that can be used to estimate the temperature by tracking changes in that parameter during heating. The objective of this study is to investigate the temperature dependence of acoustic harmonics generated by nonlinear ultrasound wave propagation in water at various pulse transmit frequencies from 1 to 20 MHz. Simulations were conducted using an expanded form of the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov nonlinear acoustic wave propagation model in which temperature dependence of the medium parameters was included. Measurements were performed using single-element transducers at two different transmit frequencies of 3.3 and 13 MHz which are within the range of frequencies simulated. The acoustic pressure signals were measured by a calibrated needle hydrophone along the axes of the transducers. The water temperature was uniformly increased from 26 °C to 46 °C in increments of 5 °C. The results show that the temperature dependence of the harmonic generation is different at various frequencies which is due to the interplay between the mechanisms of absorption, nonlinearity, and focusing gain. At the transmit frequencies of 1 and 3.3 MHz, the harmonic amplitudes decrease with increasing the temperature, while the opposite temperature dependence is observed at 13 and 20 MHz. © 2016 Acoustical Society of America. Source


Schmitt K.-U.,Institute for Biomedical Engineering | Schlittler M.,ETH Zurich | Boesiger P.,Institute for Biomedical Engineering
Journal of Sports Sciences | Year: 2010

There is a risk of hip injury in dives to the side by soccer goalkeepers. In this study, we assessed hip loading in goalkeepers when performing such dives. The experiments were conducted in a laboratory setting using an in-ground force plate as well as on a grass surface when the athletes were equipped with force sensors. The forces acting on the hip were measured and high-speed video analysis was performed, allowing the investigation of the dive characteristics and techniques. The peak force values recorded in the laboratory setting ranged from 3 to 8 kN, which corresponded to 4.2-8.6 times body weight. The vertical impact velocities reached 3.25 m · s-1. In the field experiments, a hip loading of 87-183 N · cm-2 was determined. We found that goalkeepers who perform a rolling motion reduce their hip loading. The data provided by this study add to the biomechanics database and contribute to the establishment of injury criteria. Such information is necessary to develop and implement strategies to help prevent hip injuries. © 2010 Taylor & Francis. Source


Bok T.-H.,Ryerson University | Bok T.-H.,Institute for Biomedical Engineering | Hysi E.,Ryerson University | Hysi E.,Institute for Biomedical Engineering | And 2 more authors.
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE | Year: 2016

This paper attempts to experimentally and analytically quantify the aggregation-induced changes in the photoacoustic amplitude (PAA) by simultaneously examining the effect of red blood cell (RBC) aggregate size and optical illumination wavelength. In experiments, the pulsatile flow of human whole blood at 60 bpm was imaged using the VevoLAZR system equipped with a 40-MHz-linear-array probe. The samples were illuminated every 10 nm from 700 to 900 nm. For the analytical model, the PAA from both a collection of randomly distributed RBCs of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 cells and a single absorber as a spherical aggregate of RBCs formed by the corresponding number of RBCs. The oxygen saturation (sO2) was measured as 74% and 80% for the non-aggregated RBCs and the RBC aggregation. These values were assigned to the analytical RBC aggregates containing between 5 and 30 cells. The normalized PAA (nPAA) for the experimental results was compared to that generated by the theoretical calculations. At a given wavelength, the analytical nPAA for the collection of RBCs were identical for all numbers of RBCs, but that for the RBC aggregate increased with the number of RBCs forming the aggregate due to the increase in the effective photoacoustic absorber size. The experimental as well as analytical nPAA for both RBC aggregation and non-aggregation increased with the wavelength at a given absorber size. This was due to the fact that the PAA is mainly determined by the optical absorption coefficient (μa) which increases due to the relationship between and wavelength. In addition, the difference of PAA between RBC aggregation and nonaggregation also increased with the wavelength due to the increase in the μa induced by the hypothesized enhanced sO2 resulting from the increased size of RBC aggregates. These results can be used as a means of estimating the oxygen loading and unloading during blood flow. This investigation elucidates the quantitative relationship between the RBC aggregate size and the optical illumination wavelength for probing the physiology of flowing blood. © 2016 SPIE. Source

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