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Rybarczyk-Mydlowska K.,Wageningen University | Maboreke H.R.,Institute For Biologie | Van Megen H.,Wageningen University | Van Den Elsen S.,Wageningen University | And 4 more authors.
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2012

Background: Plant parasitic nematodes are unusual Metazoans as they are equipped with genes that allow for symbiont-independent degradation of plant cell walls. Among the cell wall-degrading enzymes, glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GHF5) cellulases are relatively well characterized, especially for high impact parasites such as root-knot and cyst nematodes. Interestingly, ancestors of extant nematodes most likely acquired these GHF5 cellulases from a prokaryote donor by one or multiple lateral gene transfer events. To obtain insight into the origin of GHF5 cellulases among evolutionary advanced members of the order Tylenchida, cellulase biodiversity data from less distal family members were collected and analyzed. Results: Single nematodes were used to obtain (partial) genomic sequences of cellulases from representatives of the genera Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Hirschmanniella and Globodera. Combined Bayesian analysis of ≈ 100 cellulase sequences revealed three types of catalytic domains (A, B, and C). Represented by 84 sequences, type B is numerically dominant, and the overall topology of the catalytic domain type shows remarkable resemblance with trees based on neutral (= pathogenicity-unrelated) small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Bayesian analysis further suggested a sister relationship between the lesion nematode Pratylenchus thornei and all type B cellulases from root-knot nematodes. Yet, the relationship between the three catalytic domain types remained unclear. Superposition of intron data onto the cellulase tree suggests that types B and C are related, and together distinct from type A that is characterized by two unique introns. Conclusions: All Tylenchida members investigated here harbored one or multiple GHF5 cellulases. Three types of catalytic domains are distinguished, and the presence of at least two types is relatively common among plant parasitic Tylenchida. Analysis of coding sequences of cellulases suggests that root-knot and cyst nematodes did not acquire this gene directly by lateral genes transfer. More likely, these genes were passed on by ancestors of a family nowadays known as the Pratylenchidae. © 2012 Rybarczyk-Mydłowska et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Jansen F.,University of Greifswald | Ewald J.,Weihenstephan-Triesdorf University of Applied Sciences | Jandt U.,Institute For Biologie
Tuexenia | Year: 2015

With more than 2.5 million vegetation plots Germany holds probably the biggest treasure of this important biodiversity information. Unfortunately, visibility and accessibility of this heritage remain far behind the technical possibilities and actual international standards. Modernization and development of the national vegetation database vegetweb is a priority which is tackled by a joint project of the biggest database maintainers in Germany. You can access a prototype of the platform at http://www.vegetweb.de. The platform for the disclose and distribution of vegetation data will reach its full operational capacity by the end of 2016.We call on all colleagues to participate actively in the National Vegetation Database for Germany by providing own data or by persuading others to do so. Source


Lehmann A.,Free University of Berlin | Barto E.K.,Free University of Berlin | Powell J.R.,University of Western Sydney | Rillig M.C.,Free University of Berlin | Rillig M.C.,Institute For Biologie
Plant and Soil | Year: 2012

Background and aims: Year of release of a cultivar reflects the agricultural and breeding practices of its time; we hypothesize that there are differences in mycorrhizal responsiveness of new high yielding and old crop plants and landraces. We evaluated the importance of the year of release on mycorrhizal responsiveness, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal root colonization and P efficiency. We also analyzed the effect of experimental treatments, P efficiency (P acquisition and P utilization efficiency) and AM fungal root colonization on a potential mycorrhizal responsiveness trend for year of release. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis on 39 publications working on 320 different crop plant genotypes. Results: New cultivars were less intensely colonized but were more mycorrhiza-responsive (and possibly dependent) compared to ancestral genotypes. This trend was potentially influenced by the moderator variables density, pre-germination, plant, plant type and AMF species. AM root colonization was also important for the mycorrhizal responsiveness trend for year of release, but P efficiency was not. Conclusions: With the data available we could find no evidence that new crop plant genotypes lost their ability to respond to mycorrhiza due to agricultural and breeding practices. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Ibanez-Bernal S.,Institute Ecologia | Kraemer M.S.,University of Bonn | Kraemer M.S.,Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum | Stebner F.,University of Bonn | Wagner R.,Institute For Biologie
Palaontologische Zeitschrift | Year: 2014

The male of Pintomyia (Pifanomyia) bolontikui sp. nov., from the Miocene Mexican amber deposits of Simojovel, Chiapas, is described. This is the second fossil phlebotomine sand fly described from Mexico. Morphological differences between fossil and extant species of American phlebotomine sand flies are discussed. © 2013 The Author(s). Source


Stebner F.,Steinmann Institute | Solorzano Kraemer M.M.,Steinmann Institute | Solorzano Kraemer M.M.,Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum | Ibanez-Bernal S.,Institute Ecologia | Wagner R.,Institute For Biologie
PeerJ | Year: 2015

One new subfamily, four new genera and 10 new species of Psychodidae are described from Burmese amber which significantly increases our knowledge about this group in the Cretaceous. Protopsychodinae n. subfam. probably represents the oldest known ancestor of modern Psychodinae and includes three species within two genera: Datzia setosa gen. et sp. n., Datzia bispina gen. et sp. n., and Mandalayia beumersorum gen. et sp. n. Sycoracinae and Phlebotominae are represented by two genera each in the studied material, Palaeoparasycorax globosus gen. et sp. n., Palaeoparasycorax suppus gen. et sp. n., Parasycorax simplex sp. n., and Phlebotomites aphoe sp. n. and Phlebotomus vetus sp. n., respectively. Bruchomyiinae is represented by Nemopalpus quadrispiculatus sp. n. Furthermore, one genus of an incertae sedis subfamily, Bamara groehni gen. et sp. n., is described. The systematic positions of the new taxa are discussed. © 2015 Stebner et al. Source

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