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Windheim M.,University of Warwick | Windheim M.,Hannover Medical School | Honing S.,Institute for Biochemistry i | Leppard K.N.,University of Warwick | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2016

The E3 transcription unit of human species C adenoviruses (Ads) encodes immunomodulatory proteins that mediate direct protection of infected cells. Recently, we described a novel immunomodulatory function for E3/49K, an E3 protein uniquely expressed by species D Ads. E3/49K of Ad19a/Ad64, a serotype that causes epidemic keratokonjunctivitis, is synthesized as a highly glycosylated type I transmembrane protein that is subsequently cleaved, resulting in secretion of its large ectodomain (sec49K). sec49K binds toCD45on leukocytes, impairing activation and functions of natural killer cells and T cells. E3/49K is localized in the Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN), in the early endosomes, and on the plasma membrane, yet the cellular compartment where E3/49K is cleaved and the protease involved remained elusive. Here we show that TGN-localized E3/49K comprises both newly synthesized and recycled molecules. Full-length E3/49K was not detected in late endosomes/ lysosomes, but the C-terminal fragment accumulated in this compartment at late times of infection. Inhibitor studies showed that cleavage occurs in a post-TGN compartment and that lysosomotropic agents enhance secretion. Interestingly, the cytoplasmic tail of E3/49K contains two potential sorting motifs, YXXφ (where φ represents a bulky hydrophobic amino acid) and LL, that are important for binding the clathrin adaptor proteins AP-1 and AP-2 in vitro. Surprisingly, mutating the LL motif, either alone or together with YXXφ, did not prevent proteolytic processing but increased cell surface expression and secretion. Upon brefeldin A treatment, cell surface expression was rapidly lost, even for mutants lacking all known endocytosis motifs. Together with immunofluorescence data, we propose a model for intracellular E3/49K transport whereby cleavage takes place on the cell surface by matrix metalloproteases. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Papadopoulos C.,University of Cologne | Orso G.,E Medea Scientific Institute | Mancuso G.,University of Cologne | Herholz M.,Cologne Excellence Cluster on Cellular Stress Responses in Aging Associated Diseases CECAD | And 13 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2015

Mutations in SPAST, encoding spastin, are the most common cause of autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). HSP is characterized by weakness and spasticity of the lower limbs, owing to progressive retrograde degeneration of the long corticospinal axons. Spastin is a conserved microtubule (MT)-severing protein, involved in processes requiring rearrangement of the cytoskeleton in concert to membrane remodeling, such as neurite branching, axonal growth, midbody abscission, and endosome tubulation. Two isoforms of spastin are synthesized from alternative initiation codons (M1 and M87). We now show that spastin-M1 can sort from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to pre- and mature lipid droplets (LDs). A hydrophobic motif comprised of amino acids 57 through 86 of spastin was sufficient to direct a reporter protein to LDs, while mutation of arginine 65 to glycine abolished LD targeting. Increased levels of spastin-M1 expression reduced the number but increased the size of LDs. Expression of a mutant unable to bind and sever MTs caused clustering of LDs. Consistent with these findings, ubiquitous overexpression of Dspastin in Drosophila led to bigger and less numerous LDs in the fat bodies and increased triacylglycerol levels. In contrast, Dspastin overexpression increased LD number when expressed specifically in skeletal muscles or nerves. Downregulation of Dspastin and expression of a dominant-negative variant decreased LD number in Drosophila nerves, skeletal muscle and fat bodies, and reduced triacylglycerol levels in the larvae. Moreover, we found reduced amount of fat stores in intestinal cells of worms in which the spas-1 homologue was either depleted by RNA interference or deleted. Taken together, our data uncovers an evolutionarily conserved role of spastin as a positive regulator of LD metabolism and open up the possibility that dysfunction of LDs in axons may contribute to the pathogenesis of HSP. © 2015 Papadopoulos et al.

Traut W.,University of Lübeck | Vogel H.,Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology | Glockner G.,Institute for Biochemistry I | Hartmann E.,University of Lübeck | Heckel D.G.,Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology
Chromosome Research | Year: 2013

Y and W chromosomes have mostly been excluded from whole genome sequencing projects. Due to the high amount of repetitive sequences they are 'difficult' to assemble and therefore need special treatment in the form of, e.g. adapted assembly programs, a range of different libraries, and accurate maps, if possible. A minimum requirement for these approaches is pure template DNA. We therefore microdissected the W chromatin of highly polyploid cells from the flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella, and used Roche/454 and Sanger sequencing to generate 72.6 Mbp of DNA sequence. Nominal coverage was 4.3× of the 16.7 Mbp of W chromosomal DNA. We used these data to assess the genetic content of the W chromosome. This approach allowed us to determine constituent families of transposable elements, microsatellites, and recent insertion sites of mitochondrial DNA. However, no conventional protein-coding gene has yet been found. The sequence collection is a rich source for the definition of W-specific PCR markers and the reconstruction of W chromosome loci, as a step towards full reconstruction of the chromosome. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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