Institute for Atherosclerosis Research

Moscow, Russia

Institute for Atherosclerosis Research

Moscow, Russia
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Bobryshev Y.V.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences | Karagodin V.P.,Institute for Atherosclerosis Research | Kovalevskaya Z.I.,Institute for Atherosclerosis Research | Myasoedova V.A.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Cell and Tissue Biology | Year: 2012

Increased cell proliferation at the early stages of an atherosclerotic lesion is considered an important stage of development of this pathology, but the degree of the proliferation at various stages of formation of atherosclerotic plaque in various human large arteries so far has been studied insufficiently. In the present work, we studied the thickness of intima and proliferation of the newly "infiltrated" hematogenic and resident cells in atherosclerotic lesion of carotid and coronary arteries; a comparison is also made with similar results obtained on the aorta and presented in our earlier publications. Analysis of thickness of intima and of proliferation in normal intima and at various stages of atherosclerotic lesion (initial stages, lipid strips, lipofibrous plaques, fibrous plaques) showed that, in spite of similar tendencies toward changing the level of infiltration of hematogenic cells and proliferation in various types of arteries, there exist significant quantitative differences between various types of arteries. Thus, it is found that hematogenic cells in lipofibrous plaques of coronary and carotid arteries account for one-third and almost half of the total cell population, respectively, whereas the atherosclerosis-lesioned sites of the aorta, as we showed earlier, contain no more than 15% of hematogenic cells. This allows one to think that the contribution of hemopoietic cells to development of atherosclerosis in carotid and coronary arteries is greater than in the aorta. In spite of differences in the number of the hemopoietic cells accumulating in intima, an analogous bell-shaped dependence of the number of cells on the type of lesion (in the sequence normal intima-initial stages of pathology-lipid strips-lipofibrous plaques-fibrous plaques) was shown for coronary and carotid arteries. Visualization of proliferating (PCNA-positive) cells in atherosclerosed and normal (unchanged) zones of coronary and carotid arteries revealed a similar picture. The maximum number of PCNA-positive resident cells was found in lipofibrous plaques. Changes of the total number of cells were accompanied by a change in the number of proliferating resident and proliferating hematogenic cells. © 2012 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Sobenin I.A.,Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology | Myasoedova V.A.,Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology | Anisimova E.V.,Institute for Atherosclerosis Research | Pavlova X.N.,Institute for Atherosclerosis Research | And 11 more authors.
Current Pharmaceutical Design | Year: 2014

The phenomenon of blood serum atherogenicity was described as the ability of human serum to induce lipid accumulation in cultured cells. The results of recent two-year prospective study in asymptomatic men provided the evidence for association between the changes in serum atherogenicity and dynamics of carotid intima-media thickness progression. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that blood serum atherogenicity and its changes in dynamics may be associated with accumulation of coronary calcium in subclinical atherosclerosis. It was performed in 782 CHD-free participants of The Heinz Nixdorf RECALL (Risk Factors, Evaluation of Coronary Calcium and Lifestyle) Study, in whom blood samples have been taken at the baseline and at the end of 5-year follow-up. Opposite to the previous findings, the changes in serum atherogenicity did not correlate neither with the extent of coronary artery calcification, nor with the changes in Agatston CAC score. There was a moderate but significant rise in serum atherogenicity after 5-year followup period, and the same dynamics was observed for Agatston CAC score, but not for convenient lipid-related risk factors. The absence of association of the changes in serum atherogenicity with the changes in Agatston CAC score, along with previous findings, provides a point of view that serum-induced intracellular cholesterol accumulation is not related to the processes of calcium deposition in arterial wall, since the last one reflects the progression of already existing subclinical atherosclerotic lesions. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.


Sobenin I.A.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences | Sazonova M.A.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences | Ivanova M.M.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences | Zhelankin A.V.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

This study was undertaken to examine the association between the level of heteroplasmy for the mutation C3256T in human white blood cells and the extent of carotid atherosclerosis, as well as the presence of coronary heart disease (CHD), the major clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis. Totally, 191 participants (84 men, 107 women) aged 65.0 years (SD 9.4) were recruited in the study; 45 (24%) of them had CHD. High-resolution B-mode ultrasonography of carotids was used to estimate the extent of carotid atherosclerosis by measuring of the carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). DNA samples were obtained from whole venous blood, and then PCR and pyrosequencing were carried out. On the basis of pyrosequencing data, the levels of C3256T heteroplasmy in DNA samples were calculated. The presence of the mutant allele was detected in all study participants; the level of C3256T heteroplasmy in white blood cells ranged from 5% to 74%. The highly significant relationship between C3256T heteroplasmy level and predisposition to atherosclerosis was revealed. In individuals with low predisposition to atherosclerosis the mean level of C3256T heteroplasmy was 16.8%, as compared to 23.8% in moderately predisposed subjects, and further to 25.2% and 28.3% in significantly and highly predisposed subjects, respectively. The level of C3256T heteroplasmy of mitochondrial genome in human white blood cells is a biomarker of mitochondrial dysfunction and risk factor for atherosclerosis; therefore, it can be used as an informative marker of genetic susceptibility to atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction. © 2012 Sobenin et al.


Bobryshev Y.V.,Institute for Atherosclerosis Research | Karagodin V.P.,Institute for Atherosclerosis Research | Moisenovich M.M.,Institute for Atherosclerosis Research | Melnichenko A.A.,Institute for Atherosclerosis Research | Orekhov A.N.,Institute for Atherosclerosis Research
Tsitologiya | Year: 2013

It is generally recognized that the accumulation of lipids and immuno-inflammatory cells are early signs of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we have investigated the relationship between the deposition of lipids, of immuno-inflammatory cells and the expression of HLA-DR molecules (a marker of immune activation), the molecules of the class II of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in diffuse thickening of the intima (DIT). Lipids, including triglycerides, cholesterol esters, free cholesterol and phospholipids were studied by chromatography, Oil Red O histochemisty, as well as by electron microscopic analysis. Immuno-inflammatory cells and the expression of HLA-DR were investigated by immunohistochemistry in consecutive section of the same tissue samples. It has been shown that the lipids were unevenly distributed in DIT. In juxtaluminal sublayer, lipids were detected both in the cytoplasm of intimal cells and extracellularly. In the juxtamedial musculoelastic sublayer of the intima, lipids were present predominantly along elastic fibers. The positive correlation between the presence of lipids and the expression of HLA-DR was revealed (r = 0.79; P < 0.001). Also, a positive correlation was found between the deposition of lipids and the number of immune-inflammatory cells, although correlations was different for different sublayers of the intima. In particular, the correlation between the deposition of lipids and immune-inflammatory cells in the juxtaluminal sublayer of the intima was higher (r = 0.99; P < 0.001) than in the juxtamedial musculoelastic layer (r = 0.28; P < 0.001). These data support the hypothesis that postulates that the accumulation of lipids in the intima is a key factor in the initiation of inflammatory reactions. At the pre-atherosclerotic stage of the development of this disease, earlier pathological processes associated with lipid-dependent activation of immune cells occur mainly in the juxtaluminal portion of the intima.


Bobryshev Y.V.,University of New South Wales | Karagodin V.P.,Institute for Atherosclerosis Research | Orekhov A.N.,Institute for Atherosclerosis Research
Tsitologiya | Year: 2012

Dendritic cells were discovered and recognized as antigen-presenting cells in 1973. Since then, large volume of information has accumulated showing role of dendritic cells as a key element connecting the innate and adaptive immunity. Nowadays, dendritic cells are considered to be professional immune sensors capable of recognizing both antigen amounts and antigen persistence via complex mechanisms that involve decoding and integration of various signals received in a receptor-dependant manner. Tissue microenvironment plays an important role in the modulation of effector functions of dendritic cells leading either to activation or to suppression of immune reactions. Dendritic cells maintain the homeostasis and are involved in a number of diseases including infection diseases and cancer. The presence of dendritic cells in arteries has been reported in 1995. And since then the importance of dendritic cells in atherogenesis. is intensively studied. This review briefly described current knowledge on dendritic cells and their role in atherogenesis.


Bobryshev Y.V.,University of New South Wales | Karagodin V.P.,Institute for Atherosclerosis Research | Orekhov A.N.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
Cell and Tissue Biology | Year: 2013

Dendritic cells were discovered and recognized as antigen-presenting cells in 1973. Since then, a large volume of information has been accumulated showing the role of dendritic cells as a key element connecting the innate and adaptive immunity. Today, dendritic cells are considered to be dedicated sensors of the immune system that are capable of recognizing both antigen amounts and antigen persistence via complex mechanisms that involve decoding and integration of various signals received in a receptor-dependant manner. The tissue microenvironment plays an important role in the modulation of effector functions of dendritic cells, inducing either activation or suppression of immune reactions. Dendritic cells maintain homeostasis and are involved in a number of diseases, including infectious diseases and cancer. The presence of dendritic cells in arteries was reported in 1995, and, since then, the involvement of dendritic cells in atherogenesis has been evaluated. This review briefly describes the current knowledge of dendritic cells and their role in atherosclerosis. © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Bobryshev Y.V.,Institute for Atherosclerosis Research | Karagodin V.P.,Institute for Atherosclerosis Research | Moisenovich M.M.,Institute for Atherosclerosis Research | Melnichenko A.A.,Institute for Atherosclerosis Research | Orekhov A.N.,Institute for Atherosclerosis Research
Cell and Tissue Biology | Year: 2013

It is generally recognized that accumulation of lipids and immune inflammatory cells is an early sign of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the deposition of lipids, immune inflammatory cell content and expression of HLA-DR molecules, and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) (a marker of immune activation) in diffuse intima thickening (DIT). Lipids, including triglycerides, cholesterol esters, free cholesterol, and phospholipids were studied by chromatography and Oil Red O histochemistry, as well as by electron microscopy. Immune inflammatory cells and the expression of HLA-DR were investigated by immunohistochemistry in serial sections of the same tissue samples. It has been shown that the lipids were unevenly distributed in DIT. In the juxtaluminal sublayer, lipids were detected in the cytoplasm of intima cells and the extracellular area. In the juxtamedial musculoelastic sublayer of the intima, lipids were present predominantly along elastic fibers. The positive correlation between the presence of lipids and the expression of HLA-DR was revealed (r = 0.79; p < 0.001). A positive correlation was also found between the deposition of lipids and the number of immune inflammatory cells, although correlation was different for different sublayers of the intima. In particular, the correlation between the deposition of lipids and immune inflammatory cells in the juxtaluminal sublayer of the intima was higher (r = 0.69; p < 0.001) than in the juxtamedial musculoelastic layer (r = 0.28; p < 0.001). These data support the hypothesis that the accumulation of lipids in the intima is a key factor in the initiation of inflammatory reactions. At the preatherosclerotic stage of development of this disease, earlier pathological processes associated with lipid-dependent activation of immune cells occur mainly in the juxtaluminal portion of the intima. © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


PubMed | Institute for Atherosclerosis Research, Moscow State University, University of New South Wales and Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in physiology | Year: 2014

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a specialized subset of DCs that links innate and adaptive immunity. They sense viral and bacterial pathogens and release high levels of Type I interferons (IFN-I) in response to infection. pDCs were shown to contribute to inflammatory responses in the steady state and in pathology. In atherosclerosis, pDCs are involved in priming vascular inflammation and atherogenesis through production of IFN-I and chemokines that attract inflammatory cells to inflamed sites. pDCs also contribute to the proinflammatory activation of effector T cells, cytotoxic T cells, and conventional DCs. However, tolerogenic populations of pDCs are found that suppress atherosclerosis-associated inflammation through down-regulation of function and proliferation of proinflammatory T cell subsets and induction of regulatory T cells with potent immunomodulatory properties. Notably, atheroprotective tolerogenic DCs could be induced by certain self-antigens or bacterial antigens that suggests for great therapeutic potential of these DCs for development of DC-based anti-atherogenic vaccines.

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