Institute for Animal Science

Mariensee, Germany

Institute for Animal Science

Mariensee, Germany
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Leitner G.,Kimron Veterinary Institute | Lavon Y.,Israel Cattle Breeders Association | Merin U.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Jacoby S.,Institute for Animal Science | And 2 more authors.
Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2017

The decision on whether to treat cows’ subclinical udder infections or to ignore it is not straightforward as antibiotic treatment of animals that are not at risk should be justified with respect to the cost of treatment and milk loss. Data regarding 152 dairy cows was used to evaluate the economics of mastitis-control according to five categories: a) No intervention; b) Antibiotic treatment; c) Drying off quarter/s; d) Drying-off the whole udder and e) Culling. The data was analyzed according to parity, bacteria, time in lactation at infection recording, treatment, time elapsed between infection and treatment and somatic cell count at treatment. Cure of first lactation cows was significantly higher than that of cows at their 2nd and 3rd onward lactations and depended on the bacteria causing the infection. It was higher in cows infected with coagulase negative staphylococci than with various types of Streptococci, and lowest in cows previously infected with Escherichia coli. The effect of day of treatment after onset of the infection was significant. It was also demonstrated that use of casein hydrolysate (a drug in development that can dry-off the inflamed quarter with modest reduction in overall milk yield by avoiding the problem of withholding milk), eliminates the need to use antibiotics and the cost of treatment becomes highly economical. In conclusion, antibiotic treatment is unavoidably associated with milk waste; thus, when the alternative is no intervention it is the preferable option. In cases where the infected gland produces low quality milk with somatic cell count ~1,000×103cells/mL milk, drying-off the gland by using a drug such as casein hydrolysate is the preferable option. © 2017, Israel Veterinary Medical Association. All rights reserved.


Takeshima S.-N.,RIKEN | Miyasaka T.,RIKEN | Matsumoto Y.,RIKEN | Xue G.,RIKEN | And 8 more authors.
Tissue Antigens | Year: 2015

Bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLAs) are used extensively as markers for bovine disease and immunological traits. In this study, we estimated BoLA-DRB3 allele frequencies using 888 cattle from 10 groups, including seven cattle breeds and three crossbreeds: 99 Red Angus, 100 Black Angus, 81 Chilean Wagyu, 49 Hereford, 95 Hereford × Angus, 71 Hereford × Jersey, 20 Hereford × Overo Colorado, 113 Holstein, 136 Overo Colorado, and 124 Overo Negro cattle. Forty-six BoLA-DRB3 alleles were identified, and each group had between 12 and 29 different BoLA-DRB3 alleles. Overo Negro had the highest number of alleles (29); this breed is considered in Chile to be an 'Old type' European Holstein Friesian descendant. By contrast, we detected 21 alleles in Holstein cattle, which are considered to be a 'Present type' Holstein Friesian cattle. Chilean cattle groups and four Japanese breeds were compared by neighbor-joining trees and a principal component analysis (PCA). The phylogenetic tree showed that Red Angus and Black Angus cattle were in the same clade, crossbreeds were closely related to their parent breeds, and Holstein cattle from Chile were closely related to Holstein cattle in Japan. Overall, the tree provided a thorough description of breed history. It also showed that the Overo Negro breed was closely related to the Holstein breed, consistent with historical data indicating that Overo Negro is an 'Old type' Holstein Friesian cattle. This allelic information will be important for investigating the relationship between major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Polat M.,RIKEN | Polat M.,Tokyo Medical University | Takeshima S.-N.,RIKEN | Takeshima S.-N.,Tokyo Medical University | And 15 more authors.
Retrovirology | Year: 2016

Background: Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a member of retroviridae family, together with human T cell leukemia virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and -2) belonging to the genes deltaretrovirus, and infects cattle worldwide. Previous studies have classified the env sequences of BLV provirus from different geographic locations into eight genetic groups. To investigate the genetic variability of BLV in South America, we performed phylogenetic analyses of whole genome and partial env gp51 sequences of BLV strains isolated from Peru, Paraguay and Bolivia, for which no the molecular characteristics of BLV have previously been published, and discovered a novel BLV genotype, genotype-9, in Bolivia. Results: In Peru and Paraguay, 42.3 % (139/328) and over 50 % (76/139) of samples, respectively, were BLV positive. In Bolivia, the BLV infection rate was up to 30 % (156/507) at the individual level. In Argentina, 325/420 samples were BLV positive, with a BLV prevalence of 77.4 % at the individual level and up to 90.9 % at herd level. By contrast, relatively few BLV positive samples were detected in Chile, with a maximum of 29.1 % BLV infection at the individual level. We performed phylogenetic analyses using two different approaches, maximum likelihood (ML) tree and Bayesian inference, using 35 distinct partial env gp51 sequences from BLV strains isolated from Peru, Paraguay, and Bolivia, and 74 known BLV strains, representing eight different BLV genotypes from various geographical locations worldwide. The results indicated that Peruvian and Paraguayan BLV strains were grouped into genotypes-1, -2, and -6, while those from Bolivia were clustered into genotypes-1, -2, and -6, and a new genotype, genotype-9. Interestingly, these results were confirmed using ML phylogenetic analysis of whole genome sequences obtained by next generation sequencing of 25 BLV strains, assigned to four different genotypes (genotypes-1, -2, -6, and -9) from Peru, Paraguay, and Bolivia. Comparative analyses of complete genome sequences clearly showed some specific substitutions, in both structural and non-structural BLV genes, distinguishing the novel genotype-9 from known genotypes. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate widespread BLV infection in South American cattle and the existence of a new BLV genotype-9 in Bolivia. We conclude that at least seven BLV genotypes (genotypes-1, -2, -4, -5, -6, -7, and -9) are circulating in South America. © 2016 Polat et al.


PubMed | Institute for Animal Science, LAVET, National University of La Plata, RIKEN and Kanazawa University
Type: | Journal: Retrovirology | Year: 2016

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a member of retroviridae family, together with human T cell leukemia virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and -2) belonging to the genes deltaretrovirus, and infects cattle worldwide. Previous studies have classified the env sequences of BLV provirus from different geographic locations into eight genetic groups. To investigate the genetic variability of BLV in South America, we performed phylogenetic analyses of whole genome and partial env gp51 sequences of BLV strains isolated from Peru, Paraguay and Bolivia, for which no the molecular characteristics of BLV have previously been published, and discovered a novel BLV genotype, genotype-9, in Bolivia.In Peru and Paraguay, 42.3 % (139/328) and over 50 % (76/139) of samples, respectively, were BLV positive. In Bolivia, the BLV infection rate was up to 30 % (156/507) at the individual level. In Argentina, 325/420 samples were BLV positive, with a BLV prevalence of 77.4 % at the individual level and up to 90.9 % at herd level. By contrast, relatively few BLV positive samples were detected in Chile, with a maximum of 29.1 % BLV infection at the individual level. We performed phylogenetic analyses using two different approaches, maximum likelihood (ML) tree and Bayesian inference, using 35 distinct partial env gp51 sequences from BLV strains isolated from Peru, Paraguay, and Bolivia, and 74 known BLV strains, representing eight different BLV genotypes from various geographical locations worldwide. The results indicated that Peruvian and Paraguayan BLV strains were grouped into genotypes-1, -2, and -6, while those from Bolivia were clustered into genotypes-1, -2, and -6, and a new genotype, genotype-9. Interestingly, these results were confirmed using ML phylogenetic analysis of whole genome sequences obtained by next generation sequencing of 25 BLV strains, assigned to four different genotypes (genotypes-1, -2, -6, and -9) from Peru, Paraguay, and Bolivia. Comparative analyses of complete genome sequences clearly showed some specific substitutions, in both structural and non-structural BLV genes, distinguishing the novel genotype-9 from known genotypes.Our results demonstrate widespread BLV infection in South American cattle and the existence of a new BLV genotype-9 in Bolivia. We conclude that at least seven BLV genotypes (genotypes-1, -2, -4, -5, -6, -7, and -9) are circulating in South America.


PubMed | Wagyu Registry Association, Kobe University, Yamaguchi Prefectural Agriculture & Forestry General Technology Center, Institute for Animal Science and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho | Year: 2016

This study aims to estimate the mitochondrial genetic diversity and structure of Japanese Polled and Kuchinoshima feral cattle, which are maintained in small populations. We determined the mitochondrial DMA (mtDNA) displacement loop (D-loop) sequences for both cattle populations and analyzed these in conjunction with previously published data from Northeast Asian cattle populations. Our findings showed that Japanese native cattle have a predominant, Asian-specific mtDNA haplogroup T4 with high frequencies (0.43-0.81). This excluded Kuchinoshima cattle (32 animals), which had only one mtDNA haplotype belonging to the haplogroup T3. Japanese Polled showed relatively lower mtDNA diversity in the average sequence divergence (0.0020) than other Wagyu breeds (0.0036-0.0047). Japanese Polled have been maintained in a limited area of Yamaguchi, and the population size is now less than 200. Therefore, low mtDNA diversity in the Japanese Polled could be explained by the decreasing population size in the last three decades. We found low mtDNA diversity in both Japanese Polled and Kuchinoshima cattle. The genetic information obtained in this study will be useful for maintaining these populations and for understanding the origin of Japanese native cattle.


Ni Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Huang Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xiao Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wu J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2012

The kisspeptin (Kp) signaling pathway plays an essential role in the onset of reproduction in mammals. To investigate the effects of Kp on the initiation of egg laying in birds, juvenile female quail were given daily intraperitoneal injections of 300μl saline (control, Con), or 10nmol (low dosage, L) or 100nmol (high dosage, H) kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10) dissolved in 300μl saline for 3 weeks. The ratio of egg laying of quail in the L and H groups was notably increased compared to that of the Con group (P<0.01), which paralleled earlier ovarian growth and increases in circulating estrogen (E2) concentrations. In the hypothalamus, gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I) mRNA expression was markedly up-regulated, whereas the level of gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone mRNA was down-regulated by high-dose Kp-10 (P<0.05). In the pituitary gland, expression of GnRH receptor type II, but not type I mRNA was significantly up-regulated by high-dose Kp-10 administration (P<0.05). Moreover, compared with the Con group, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) gene expression in the pituitary was significantly decreased in the L and H groups (P<0.05), whereas luteinizing hormone (LH) mRNA expression was significantly increased in the H, but not the L group (P<0.05). These results indicate that repeated peripheral Kp-10 injections can advance the sexual maturation of female quail by regulating the activities of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Xiao Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ni Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Huang Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wu J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Peptides | Year: 2011

The effect of kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10) on the secretion of progesterone (P 4) was investigated in cultured granulosa cells from F 1 to F 3 follicles of hens. The results showed that granulosa cells were stained with clear signals for kisspeptin using immunocytochemistry with the specific antibody against Kp-10. Among 10, 100 and 1000 nM concentrations tested, 100 nM Kp-10 treated for 24 h significantly increased P 4 secretion in granulosa cells from F 1 to F 3 follicles. After 24 h and 48 h of treatment, 100 nM Kp-10 showed a significant increase in P 4 secretion, while after 72 h of treatment P 4 secretion was markedly decreased by Kp-10 compared to the control group (P < 0.05). F 1 and F 2/3 cells treated with 100 nM Kp-10 for 24 h showed significantly increased viability (P < 0.05) and which was in parallel to a marked increase in P 4 secretion (P < 0.01). Real-time PCR results showed that the gene expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) and the enzyme 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in F 1 and F 2/3 granulosa cells was significantly up-regulated by 24 h-100 nM Kp-10 treatment (P < 0.05 versus P < 0.01, respectively). However, there was no significant difference in StAR, P450scc and 3β-HSD protein content between control and the Kp-10 treated group (P > 0.05). These results indicate that Kp-10 stimulates P 4 secretion in cultured chicken granulosa cells, which was associated with an up-regulation in StAR, P450scc and 3β-HSD gene transcription. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Rodriguez-Viera L.,University of Habana | Rodriguez-Viera L.,University of Cádiz | Perera E.,Institute Ciencias Marinas Of Andalucia | Casuso A.,University of Habana | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a proteinsparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients. © 2014 Rodriguez-Viera et al.


PubMed | Center for Pharmaceuticals Research and Development, Institute Ciencias Marinas Of Andalucia, University of Habana, University of Cádiz and Institute for Animal Science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients.

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