Institute for Animal Reproduction

Japan

Institute for Animal Reproduction

Japan
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Fujimoto M.,University of Toyama | Tsuneyama K.,University of Toyama | Nakanishi Y.,University of Toyama | Salunga T.L.,University of Toyama | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Food | Year: 2014

The metabolic syndrome is a major worldwide health care issue and a dominant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The liver manifestations of this syndrome include nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its progressive variant nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Although significant research has been performed, the basic pathogenesis of NAFLD/NASH remains controversial and effective treatments are still unavailable. We have previously reported on a murine model of NASH induced by the neonatal injection of monosodium glutamate (MSG), which includes the clinical manifestations of central obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and ultimately liver inflammation, fibrosis, and cancer. Although MSG is considered a safe food additive, its administration to pregnant rats increases the voracity and growth hormone levels in the offspring. To further understand the biology of this model, we have investigated the influence of the calorie intake on these clinical manifestations by feeding animals a restrictive diet. MSG-treated animals fed a restrictive diet continue to manifest obesity and early stage NASH but have improvements in serum lipid profiles. At 12 months of age, mice had manifestations of obesity, whether animals were fed a restricted or control diet, but animals fed a restrictive diet had a reduction in the progression of NASH. In conclusion, MSG appears to be a critical factor in the initiation of obesity, whereas calorie intake may modulate the progression of disease. © 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Tsuneyama K.,University of Toyama | Chen Y.-C.,National Defense Medical Center | Fujimoto M.,University of Toyama | Sasaki Y.,Institute for Animal Reproduction | And 7 more authors.
TheScientificWorldJournal | Year: 2011

The effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) was examined using MSG mice, which are an animal model of obesity, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Nineteen MSG male mice were divided into HBOT treated and control groups at 12 weeks of ages. The HBOT group was treated with hyperbaric oxygen from 12 to 14 weeks (first phase) and then from 16 to 18 weeks (second phase). Interestingly, the body weight of the HBOT group was significantly lower (P < 0.01) than that of the control group. In contrast, the serum lipid level did not show significant changes between the two groups. As for the effects of increasing oxidative stress, the liver histology of the HBOT group showed severer cellular damage and aberrant TNF- expression. HBOT has the advantage of improving obesity in patients with metabolic syndrome, but the fault of causing organ damage by increasing oxidative stress. Copyright 2011 Koichi Tsuneyama et al.


Katayama M.,Tohoku University | Donai K.,Tohoku University | Sakakibara H.,University of Miyazaki | Ohtomo Y.,Tohoku University | And 12 more authors.
Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2014

Background and aims: Large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that drinking more than two cups of coffee per day reduces the risks of hepatitis and liver cancer. However, the heterogeneity of the human genome requires studies of experimental animal models with defined genetic backgrounds to evaluate the coffee effects on liver diseases. We evaluated the efficacy of coffee consumption with one of experimental animal models for human disease. Method: We used the Long Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat, which onsets severe hepatitis and high incidence of liver cancer, due to the accumulation of copper and iron in livers caused by the genetic mutation in Atp7B gene, and leading to the continuous oxidative stress. We determined the expression of inflammation related genes, and amounts of copper and iron in livers, and incidence of the pre-neoplastic foci in the liver tissue of LEC rats. Results: Coffee administration for 25 weeks delayed the occurrence of hepatitis by two weeks, significantly improved survival, reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines, and reduced the incidence of small pre-neoplastic liver foci in LEC rats. There was no significant difference in the accumulation of copper and iron in livers, indicating that coffee administration does not affect to the metabolism of these metals. These findings indicate that drinking coffee potentially prevents hepatitis and liver carcinogenesis through its anti-inflammatory effects. Conclusion: This study showed the efficacy of coffee in the prevention of hepatitis and liver carcinogenesis in the LEC model. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.


PubMed | Tohoku University, University of Miyazaki, Teikyo Heisei University, Teikyo University and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) | Year: 2014

Large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that drinking more than two cups of coffee per day reduces the risks of hepatitis and liver cancer. However, the heterogeneity of the human genome requires studies of experimental animal models with defined genetic backgrounds to evaluate the coffee effects on liver diseases. We evaluated the efficacy of coffee consumption with one of experimental animal models for human disease.We used the Long Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat, which onsets severe hepatitis and high incidence of liver cancer, due to the accumulation of copper and iron in livers caused by the genetic mutation in Atp7B gene, and leading to the continuous oxidative stress. We determined the expression of inflammation related genes, and amounts of copper and iron in livers, and incidence of the pre-neoplastic foci in the liver tissue of LEC rats.Coffee administration for 25 weeks delayed the occurrence of hepatitis by two weeks, significantly improved survival, reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines, and reduced the incidence of small pre-neoplastic liver foci in LEC rats. There was no significant difference in the accumulation of copper and iron in livers, indicating that coffee administration does not affect to the metabolism of these metals. These findings indicate that drinking coffee potentially prevents hepatitis and liver carcinogenesis through its anti-inflammatory effects.This study showed the efficacy of coffee in the prevention of hepatitis and liver carcinogenesis in the LEC model.


Tohei A.,Dokkyo Medical University | Kojima S.-I.,Dokkyo Medical University | Ikeda M.,Dokkyo Medical University | Hokao R.,Institute for Animal Reproduction | Shinoda M.,Dokkyo Medical University
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science | Year: 2011

It is known that pica, the consumption of non-nutritive substances such as kaolin, can be induced by administration of toxins or emetic agents in rats. In the present study, we examined the effects of intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of cyclophosphamide on pica behavior and on the concentration of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acids (5HIAA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the following five strains of adult male rats: Sprague Dawley (SD), Wistar, Fischer 344 (F344), Wistar-Imamichi (WI) and Long Evans (LE). Cyclophosphamide (25 mg or 50 mg/kg) was injected (i.p.) into the rats and kaolin and food intake were measured at 24 hr after injection. The animals were anesthetized with urethane (1 g/kg) at 3 hr after injection of cyclophosphamide, and CSF was collected from the cisterna magna. WI and LE rats clearly showed pica behavior as compared with the other strains. In LE rats, the concentration of 5HIAA in CSF also increased in a dose-dependent manner of cyclophosphamide. The pretreatment with ondansetron (5-HT3 antagonist) restored both changes (kaolin consumption and 5HIAA levels) induced by cyclophosphamide. These results suggest that the LE rat is sensitive to cyclophosphamide, that pica induced by cyclophosphamide mimics many aspects of emesis including the serotonergic response in the central nervous system and that use of the pica model would be a practical method for evaluating the effects of antiemetic drugs in addition to the mechanism of emesis.


Tsuneyama K.,University of Toyama | Nishida T.,University of Toyama | Baba H.,University of Toyama | Taira S.,Fukui Prefectural University | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (Australia) | Year: 2014

Background and Aim: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome (MS). Monosodium glutamate (MSG)-treated ICR mice is a useful model of MS and NASH, but it shows the different patterns of steatosis from human NASH. Because inbred aged DIAR (ddY, Institute for Animal Reproduction) mice spontaneously show the similar pattern of steatosis as NASH, we analyzed their liver pathology after administering MSG. Methods: MSG-treated DIAR mice (DIAR-MSG) and untreated DIAR mice (DIAR-controls) were sacrificed and assessed histopathologically at 29, 32, 40, 48, and 54 weeks of age. The NASH activity score, body mass index, blood glucose level, and oral glucose tolerance test were also assessed. Results: The body mass index and blood glucose levels of DIAR-MSG were significantly higher than controls. The oral glucose tolerance test revealed a type 2 diabetes pattern in DIAR-MSG. The livers of DIAR-MSG mice showed macrovesicular steatosis, lobular inflammation with neutrophils, and ballooning degeneration after 29 weeks. At 54 weeks, mild fibrosis was observed in 5/6 DIAR-MSG and 2/5 DIAR-control mice. In imaging mass spectrometry analysis, cholesterol as well as triglyceride accumulated in the liver of DIAR-MSG mice. Atypical liver nodules were also observed after 32 weeks in DIAR-MSG, some with cellular and structural atypia mimicking human hepatocellular carcinoma. The NASH activity score of DIAR-MSG after 29 weeks was higher than that of control mice, suggesting the development of NASH. Conclusions: DIAR-MSG had NASH-like liver pathology and liver nodules typically associated with MS symptoms. DIAR-MSG provides a valuable animal model to analyze NASH pathogenesis and carcinogenesis. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.


Baba H.,University of Toyama | Tsuneyama K.,University of Toyama | Nishida T.,University of Toyama | Hatta H.,University of Toyama | And 7 more authors.
Hepatology International | Year: 2014

Purpose: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a major health challenge because of its increasing morbidity and mortality. The establishment of useful models of HCC can significantly contribute to unveiling its pathophysiology. We developed a novel mouse model of HCC based on type 1 diabetes and reported its histopathological features. Methods: Newborn male ddY, Institute for Animal Reproduction (DIAR) mice were divided into two groups on the basis of streptozotocin treatment, which induces type 1 diabetes. Streptozotocin was subcutaneously injected (60 mg/g) into the treated group (DIAR-nSTZ mice), whereas physiologic solution was injected into the control group (DIAR-control mice) at 1.5 days after birth. All mice were fed a normal diet and histopathologically assessed at 6, 8, 10, 12, 19, and 27 weeks of age. Results: At 8 weeks, small hepatocytic nodules with mild to moderate cellular atypia were observed in the livers of DIAR-nSTZ mice, which progressed to large hepatocytic nodules with cellular atypia and infiltrating growth at 12 weeks, identical to those in well-differentiated human HCC. At 19 and 27 weeks, moderately differentiated HCC was observed in all DIAR-nSTZ mice. Conversely, no neoplastic findings were evident in DIAR-control mice. No steatosis or fibrosis was evident in either group. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that all nodules observed in DIAR-nSTZ mice were positive for glutamine synthetase. Conclusions: In DIAR-nSTZ mice, the development of HCC with similarity to human HCC and high reproducibility can be achieved using a short and simple protocol. We believe that this model will be useful for studying liver carcinogenesis. © 2014 Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver.


Nishida T.,University of Toyama | Tsuneyama K.,University of Toyama | Fujimoto M.,University of Toyama | Nomoto K.,University of Toyama | And 13 more authors.
Laboratory Investigation | Year: 2013

Metabolic syndrome is a worldwide healthcare issue and a dominant risk factor for the development of incurable diseases that affect the entire body. The hepatic manifestations of this syndrome include nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its progressive variant nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The basic pathogenesis of NAFLD/NASH remains controversial because it is difficult to clarify the disease process of NASH on the basis of metabolic syndrome alone. To determine the pathogenesis and effective treatment, an excellent animal model of NASH is required. Tsumura Suzuki obese diabetes (TSOD) male mice spontaneously develop diabetes mellitus, obesity, glucosuria, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia without any special treatments such as gene manipulation. In this study, we examined the histopathological characteristics of visceral fat and liver of 56 male TSOD mice aged 4-17 months and 9 male Tsumura Suzuki non-obesity (control) mice aged 6-12 months. In the visceral fat, enlargement of adipocytes and perivascular and pericapsular CD8-positive lymphoid aggregation were observed in 4-month-old mice. Abnormal expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and lipid peroxidation endo products was observed in macrophages. In the liver, microvesicular steatosis, hepatocellular ballooning, and Mallory bodies were observed in 4-month-old mice, with severity worsening with increasing time. These pathological findings in the liver mimic those seen in patients with NASH. Interestingly, small liver nodules with high cellularity and absence of portal tracts were frequently observed after 12 months. Most of them showed nuclear and structural atypia, and mimicked human hepatocellular carcinoma. The degree of steatosis in the non-tumor portions of the liver improved when the liver nodules developed. These findings were not observed in control mice. Here, we report that TSOD male mice spontaneously developed NAFLD without any special treatment, and that these mice are a valuable model for assessing NASH and NASH carcinogenesis owing to metabolic syndrome. © 2013 USCAP, Inc All rights reserved.


Kon H.,Dokkyo Medical University | Hokao R.,Institute for Animal Reproduction | Shinoda M.,Dokkyo Medical University
Experimental Animals | Year: 2014

We investigated the fertilization and developmental ability of superovulated eggs obtained from adult Wistar-Imamichi (WI) rats, by using pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatment. Female WI rats, 11-13 weeks of age, were divided into four groups by estrous stage (metestrus [ME], diestrus [DE], proestrus [PE], or estrus [E]). PMSG (150 IU/kg) and hCG (75 IU/kg) were injected at an interval of 48 or 55 h and the female rats were mated with mature male rats. The ovulated eggs were collected 20, 24, and 27 h after hCG injection. Regardless of the estrous stage at the time of PMSG injection, the treated rats mated and ovulated similar to the untreated spontaneously ovulated rats (S group). Although the proportion of fertilized eggs in the E- and PE-treated groups was less than the S group 20 h after hCG injection, the proportion was not different among all treated and S groups 24 h after hCG injection. The proportion of fertilized eggs using in vitro fertilization and the proportion of offspring obtained from 2-cell stage embryo transfer did not differ among the treated and S groups. In comparison with PMSG/hCG-treated immature rats, mating and ovulation rate of adult rats were significantly higher. The proportion of fertilized eggs obtained from mated rats did not differ between immature and adult rats. These results demonstrate that adult WI rats are good egg donors for reproductive biotechnological studies using unfertilized or fertilized eggs. © 2014 Japanese Association for Laboratory Animal Science.


Sasaki Y.,Musashino University | Sasaki Y.,Institute for Animal Reproduction | Shimada T.,Musashino University | Iizuka S.,Musashino University | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2011

Recently, we reported that monosodium glutamate-treated mice (MSG mice) developed severe hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus and several complications of obesity. MSG mice acquired fatty livers and subsequently underwent changes that are characteristic of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In the present study, the effects of bezafibrate on obesity, diabetes mellitus, and NAFLD/NASH were examined in MSG mice. A single dose of MSG (4 mg/g) was administered subcutaneously to neonatal male mice within 24 h of birth. Bezafibrate was mixed into the normal feed for 8 weeks. The weight and body mass index of MSG mice increased significantly despite the unchanged intake of food. Triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in blood, visceral adipose tissue, and interscapular adipose tissue rose significantly. In the livers of MSG mice, moderate centrilobular microvesicular steatosis, ballooning degeneration with Mallory bodies, and scattered infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes were observed. Centrilobular hepatocytes were 4-hydroxynonenal-positive in MSG mice. Bezafibrate ameliorated the severity of diabetes mellitus, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperlipidemia. Adiponectin and leptin concentrations in blood improved, and the accumulation of visceral fat was inhibited. The expression of acyl-CoA oxidase, a beta-oxidation gene, and carnitine palmitoyl transferase, which regulates lipid metabolism, increased markedly on administration of bezafibrate. The liver pathology in MSG mice also improved with bezafibrate; specifically, macro- and microvesicles in hepatocytes nearly disappeared, and NAFLD activity score improved. It is concluded that bezafibrate inhibits the accumulation of visceral fat, following amelioration of hyperlipidemia, in MSG-induced obese mice, due to improvements in diabetes mellitus, fatty liver, and NAFLD. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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