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Gruber H.,Institute for Crop Science and Plant Breeding | Gruber H.,TU Munich | Paul V.,TU Munich | Paul V.,National Research Center on Yak | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The objective of the study was to track the fate of recombinant Cry1Ab protein in a liquid manure field trial when feeding GM maize MON810 to dairy cows. A validated ELISA was applied for quantification of Cry1Ab in the agricultural chain from GM maize plants, feed, liquid manure and soil to crops grown on manured fields. Starting with 23.7 μg of Cry1Ab g-1 dry weight GM maize material, a rapid decline of Cry1Ab levels was observed as 2.6% and 0.9% of Cry1Ab from the GM plant were detected in feed and liquid manure, respectively. Half of this residual Cry1Ab persisted during slurry storage for 25 weeks. After application to experimental fields, final degradation of Cry1Ab to below detectable levels in soil was reported. Cry1Ab exhibited a higher rate of degradation compared to total protein in the agricultural processes. Immunoblotting revealed a degradation of the 65 kDa Cry1Ab into immunoreactive fragments of lower size in all analyzed materials. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Edmunds B.,University of Bonn | Sudekum K.-H.,University of Bonn | Bennett R.,Adisseo Europe Africa Middle East | Schroder A.,Kemin AgriFoods Europe | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to improve knowledge regarding the amino acid profile of the insoluble portion of ingested forage escaping rumen degradation. Six forage categories were analyzed. Categories varied in botanical composition and each contained 2 samples. Samples within categories were derived from the same parent material but differed in harvest, maturity, or conservation type. The rumen-undegradable protein of all forages was measured by incubation for 16. h in the rumen of 3 nonlactating cows. All residues were corrected for microbial colonization. The AA profile of the residue was different to the original profile. Degradation trends of individual AA, in terms of increase or decrease relative to the original concentration, were similar between all forages. The AA profiles of forage residues, both within and between categories, were more similar to each other than to their respective original profile. This information may aid in improving the accuracy of estimating postruminal AA supply from forages while decreasing the number of samples required to be analyzed. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association.

Gottschalk C.,Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR | Gottschalk C.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Ronczka S.,Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR | Preiss-Weigert A.,Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR | And 4 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Hepatotoxic 1,2-dehydro-pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) and their N-oxides (PANO) in feed are a potential threat for animal and human health. However, their risk assessment in preserved animal forage is difficult due to data gaps regarding their occurrence in field samples and contradictory results regarding their behavior during the ensilage process. In this study, 115 samples of grass silage originating from different districts in Bavaria (Germany) were analyzed for their PA and PANO contents. A sensitive LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the detection of 10 PA and 4 PANO was developed including a clean-up of the aqueous acidic extract by cation-exchange cartridges. The mean recoveries were between 70% for seneciphylline-. N-oxide and 104% for senecionine-. N-oxide. The limits of detection ranged between 0.14. μg senkirkine/kg dry matter (DM) and 1.3. μg retrorsine-. N-oxide or monocrotaline-. N-oxide/kg DM. Eighteen percent of the samples contained one or more of the analyzed compounds. The highest observed value, calculated as the sum of seneciphylline and senecionine, was 30. μg/kg DM. Other samples contained senecionine-. N-oxide, seneciphylline-. N-oxide, lycopsamine, intermedine, echimidine, and heliotrine in lower amounts. An accompanying laboratory scale ensilage trial showed a compound-dependent transformation of PANO during the fermentation process while PA-amounts remained stable or even increased. Impacts on safety of ensiled animal feed are discussed with regard to animal health. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Bauer U.,Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Animal Husbandry | Harms J.,Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Animal Husbandry | Steyer M.,Institute for Animal Nutrition and Feed Management | Salau J.,University of Kiel | And 6 more authors.
Landtechnik | Year: 2012

The commonly used methods to estimate fat reserves of cows are body condition score (BCS) and backfat thickness (BFT). But these methods are subjected to restrictions regarding objectivity of results and amount of work. Therefore, a visual three-dimensional sensor systemhas been developed for the automatic determination of body conditionof cows during lactation. The designed software evaluates recorded images for further processing. In the next step characteristics for bodycondition were extracted of suitable images. These characteristicsareintegrated in a linear model, which estimates the body condition score. The correlation between manual recorded BCS and estimated BCS is 0.8 (p < 0.0001).

Kohler B.,Institute for Animal Nutrition and Feed Management | Diepolder M.,Institute for Agricultural Ecology | Ostertag J.,Institute for Animal Nutrition and Feed Management | Thurner S.,Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Animal Husbandry | Spiekers H.,Institute for Animal Nutrition and Feed Management
Agricultural and Food Science | Year: 2013

An efficient feed management is important for a sustainable and economic agricultural production. One of the main points for improving the efficiency is the reduction of feed losses. In the present investigation the dry matter (DM) losses of grass, lucerne and maize silages in farm scaled bunker silos were analysed. The method of determining DM losses was the total-in versus total-out DM mass flow of the silos, including the determination of DM content and other silage parameters via manual sampling. The results taken from 48 silos showed on average for all investigated crops 9-12% of DM losses. Density and feed out rate showed a negative correlation to DM losses in maize silages. According to the applied method for determining DM losses on farm scale, a guideline of 8% can be suggested for maximum DM losses in bunker silos for grass and maize silages. The described method seems to be applicable for improving the feed management by using largely automated measurements on the harvest and feeding side.

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