Institute for Animal Breeding

Grub, Germany

Institute for Animal Breeding

Grub, Germany
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Ni G.,University of Gottingen | Ni G.,University of New England of Australia | Kipp S.,Vereinigte Informationssysteme Tierhaltung w.V. vit | Simianer H.,University of Gottingen | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics | Year: 2017

Selection decisions in genomic selection schemes are made based on genomic breeding values (GBV) of candidates. Thus, the accuracy of GBV is a relevant parameter, as it reflects the stability of prediction and the possibility that the GBV might change when more information becomes available. Accuracy of genomic prediction defined as the correlation between GBV and true breeding values (TBV), however, is difficult to assess, considering TBV of the candidates are not available in reality. In previous studies, several methods were proposed to assess the accuracy of GBV including methods using population parameters or parameters inferred from mixed-model equations. In practice, most approaches tended to overestimate the accuracy of genomic prediction. We thus tested approaches used in previous studies in order to assess the magnitude of bias. Analyses were performed based on simulated data under a variety of scenarios mimicking different livestock breeding programmes. Furthermore, we proposed a novel method and tested it both with simulated data and in a real Holstein data set. The new method provided a better prediction for the accuracy of GBV in the simulated scenarios. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH


PubMed | Institute for Animal Breeding, University of Gottingen and China Agricultural University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Heredity | Year: 2015

Identifying signatures of recent or ongoing selection is of high relevance in livestock population genomics. From a statistical perspective, determining a proper testing procedure and combining various test statistics is challenging. On the basis of extensive simulations in this study, we discuss the statistical properties of eight different established selection signature statistics. In the considered scenario, we show that a reasonable power to detect selection signatures is achieved with high marker density (>1 SNP/kb) as obtained from sequencing, while rather small sample sizes (~15 diploid individuals) appear to be sufficient. Most selection signature statistics such as composite likelihood ratio and cross population extended haplotype homozogysity have the highest power when fixation of the selected allele is reached, while integrated haplotype score has the highest power when selection is ongoing. We suggest a novel strategy, called de-correlated composite of multiple signals (DCMS) to combine different statistics for detecting selection signatures while accounting for the correlation between the different selection signature statistics. When examined with simulated data, DCMS consistently has a higher power than most of the single statistics and shows a reliable positional resolution. We illustrate the new statistic to the established selective sweep around the lactase gene in human HapMap data providing further evidence of the reliability of this new statistic. Then, we apply it to scan selection signatures in two chicken samples with diverse skin color. Our analysis suggests that a set of well-known genes such as BCO2, MC1R, ASIP and TYR were involved in the divergent selection for this trait.


Bauersachs S.,Gene Center | Ulbrich S.E.,TU Munich | Reichenbach H.-D.,Institute for Animal Breeding | Reichenbach M.,Gene Center | And 8 more authors.
Biology of Reproduction | Year: 2012

Interferon tau (IFNT), a type I IFN similar to alpha IFNs (IFNA), is the pregnancy recognition signal produced by the ruminant conceptus. To elucidate specific effects of bovine IFNT and of other conceptus-derived factors, endometrial gene expression changes during early pregnancy were compared to gene expression changes after intrauterine application of human IFNA2. In experiment 1, endometrial tissue samples were obtained on Day (D) 12, D15, and D18 postmating from nonpregnant or pregnant heifers. In experiment 2, heifers were treated from D14 to D16 of the estrous cycle with an intrauterine device releasing IFNA2 or, as controls, placebo lipid extrudates or PBS only. Endometrial biopsies were performed after flushing the uterus. All samples from both experiments were analyzed with an Affymetrix Bovine Genome Array. Experiment 1 revealed differential gene expression between pregnant and nonpregnant endometria on D15 and D18. In experiment 2, IFNA2 treatment resulted in differential gene expression in the bovine endometrium. Comparison of the data sets from both studies identified genes that were differentially expressed in response to IFNA2 but not in response to pregnancy on D15 or D18. In addition, genes were found that were differentially expressed during pregnancy but not after IFNA2 treatment. In experiment 3, spatiotemporal alterations in expression of selected genes were determined in uteri from nonpregnant and early pregnant heifers using in situ hybridization. The overall findings of this study suggest differential effects of bovine IFNT compared to human IFNA2 and that some pregnancy-specific changes in the endometrium are elicited by conceptus-derived factors other than IFNT. © 2012 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.


Weikard R.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Widmann P.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Buitkamp J.,Institute for Animal Breeding | Emmerling R.,Institute for Animal Breeding | Kuehn C.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology
Animal Genetics | Year: 2012

A parallel association study was performed in two independent cattle populations based on 41 validated, targeted single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and four microsatellite markers to re-evaluate the multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) architecture for milk performance on bovine chromosome 6 (BTA6). Two distinct QTL located in the vicinity of the middle region of BTA6, but differing unambiguously regarding their effects on milk composition and yield traits were validated in the German Holstein population. A highly significant association of the protein variant ABCG2 p.Tyr581Ser with milk composition traits reconfirmed the causative molecular relevance of the ABCG2 gene in QTL region 1, whereas in QTL region 2, significant and tentative associations between gene variants RW070 and RW023 (located in the promoter region and exon 9 of the PPARGC1A gene for milk yield traits) were detected. For the German Fleckvieh population, only RW023 showed a tentative association with milk yield traits, whereas those loci with significant effects in German Holsteins (ABCG2 p.Tyr581Ser, RW070) showed fixed alleles. Even though our new data highlight two variants in the PPARGC1A gene (RW023, RW070) in QTL region 2, based on the results of our study, currently no unequivocal conclusion about the causal background of this QTL affecting milk yield traits can be drawn. Notably, the German Holstein and Fleckvieh populations, known for their divergent degree of dairy type, differ substantially in their allele frequencies for the growth-associated NCAPG p.Ile442Met locus. © 2011 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2011 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.


Hunter R.H.F.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Coy P.,University of Murcia | Gadea J.,University of Murcia | Rath D.,Institute for Animal Breeding
Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics | Year: 2011

Migration of spermatozoa in the female genital tract will be strongly influenced by the viscosity of the fluids encountered, yet little systematic analysis has been given to such a consideration. This essay reviews the series of milieux confronting a fertilising sperm during its progression to the oviduct ampulla. Two groups are discussed, first those in which ejaculation is into the vagina, second those in which semen enters the uterus during a protracted mating. Viscous glycoprotein secretions that accumulate in the oviduct isthmus of both groups before ovulation are highlighted, as is the environment generated in the ampulla by the post-ovulatory suspension of oocyte(s), cumulus cells and spermatozoa; follicular and peritoneal fluids may also be present. The viscosity of all female tract fluids responds to cyclical variations in temperature, and these exist within the oviduct near the time of ovulation. Gradations in viscosity influence the pattern and strength of sperm flagellar activity and the rate of forward movement. Measurements of sperm motility are currently made in a physiological medium of constant viscosity and temperature, thereby overlooking changes in the female genital tract. A more sophisticated approach might reveal an adequate fertilising potential in a proportion of putatively poor semen samples. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Sethi A.,Columbia University | Ellrichmann M.,University of Kiel | Dhar S.,University of Kiel | Hadeler K.-G.,Institute for Animal Breeding | And 5 more authors.
Endoscopy | Year: 2014

Background and study aims: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an accepted method of tissue destruction for solid organ tumors. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided RFA has been used for lesions in the pancreas and liver, but there is limited experience of lymph node ablation using EUS-guided RFA. The aim of this study was to determine feasibility and safety of prototype EUS-guided RFA of mediastinal lymph nodes. Methods: This was an endoscopic experimental feasibility study in a porcine model. After EUS-guided puncture of targeted lymph nodes, the stylet of a 19-G needle was replaced by a prototype RFA probe. RFA was performed by ERBE generator (bipolar settings: 10 watts, effect 2, 2 minutes). The animals were euthanized, and the targeted lymph nodes were identified and removed for histology and measurement of the effect achieved. Results: A total of 18 mediastinal lymph nodes were ablated (mean size 20.8±6.6mm in the long axis). The average length of exposed probe was 10.0 ± 3.0mm. The mean length and diameter of necrosis was 9.8±3.6mm and 5.5±1.6mm, respectively. Linear regression comparing needle length with necrosis diameter revealed a coefficient gradient of r=0.92 (P=0.0001). With EUS-RFA a mean of 17.6±10.3% (range 8.0%-53.2%) of the respective lymph node area was ablated. No complications (i.e. hemodynamic instability, local bleeding, tissue damage) occurred during the procedure. Technical problems included stripping of the probe by the EUS needle and bending of the tip of the probe. Conclusions: EUS-RFA of lymph nodes was performed safely and successfully using a prototype EUS-compatible probe. This method may have the potential for future use in patient care. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.


Samborski A.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Graf A.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Krebs S.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Kessler B.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 5 more authors.
Biology of Reproduction | Year: 2013

The porcine conceptus undergoes rapid differentiation and expansion of its trophoblastic membranes between Days 11 and 12 of gestation. Concomitant with trophoblast elongation, production of conceptus estrogen, the porcine embryonic pregnancy recognition signal, increases. Conceptus attachment to the uterine surface epithelium starts after Day 13, initiating epitheliochorial placentation. To analyze the transcriptome changes in the endometrium in the course of maternal recognition of pregnancy, deep sequencing of endometrial RNA samples of Day 12 pregnant animals (n = 4) and corresponding nonpregnant controls (n = 4) was performed using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Between 30 000 000 and 35 000 000 sequence reads per sample were produced and mapped to the porcine genome (Sscrofa10.2). Analysis of read counts revealed 2593 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Expression of selected genes was validated by the use of quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Bioinformatics analysis identified several functional terms specifically overrepresented for upregulated or down-regulated genes. Comparison of the RNA-Seq data from Days 12 and 14 of pregnancy was performed at the level of all expressed genes, the level of the DEG, and the level of functional categories. This revealed specific gene expression patterns reflecting the different functions of the endometrium during these stages (i.e., recognition of pregnancy and preparation for conceptus attachment). Genes related to mitosis, immune response, epithelial cell differentiation and development, proteolysis, and prostaglandin signaling and metabolism are discussed in detail. This study identified comprehensive transcriptome changes in porcine endometrium associated with establishment of pregnancy and could be a resource for targeted studies of genes and pathways potentially involved in regulation of this process. © 2013 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.


PubMed | Hannover Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, Institute for Animal Breeding, University of Kiel and Columbia University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Endoscopy | Year: 2014

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an accepted method of tissue destruction for solid organ tumors. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided RFA has been used for lesions in the pancreas and liver, but there is limited experience of lymph node ablation using EUS-guided RFA. The aim of this study was to determine feasibility and safety of prototype EUS-guided RFA of mediastinal lymph nodes.This was an endoscopic experimental feasibility study in a porcine model. After EUS-guided puncture of targeted lymph nodes, the stylet of a 19-G needle was replaced by a prototype RFA probe. RFA was performed by ERBE generator (bipolar settings: 10 watts, effect 2, 2 minutes). The animals were euthanized, and the targeted lymph nodes were identified and removed for histology and measurement of the effect achieved.A total of 18 mediastinal lymph nodes were ablated (mean size 20.86.6 mm in the long axis). The average length of exposed probe was 10.0 3.0 mm. The mean length and diameter of necrosis was 9.83.6 mm and 5.51.6 mm, respectively. Linear regression comparing needle length with necrosis diameter revealed a coefficient gradient of r=0.92 (P=0.0001). With EUS-RFA a mean of 17.610.3% (range 8.0%-53.2%) of the respective lymph node area was ablated. No complications (i.e. hemodynamic instability, local bleeding, tissue damage) occurred during the procedure. Technical problems included stripping of the probe by the EUS needle and bending of the tip of the probe.EUS-RFA of lymph nodes was performed safely and successfully using a prototype EUS-compatible probe. This method may have the potential for future use in patient care.


Pausch H.,TU Munich | Jung S.,TU Munich | Edel C.,Institute for Animal Breeding | Emmerling R.,Institute for Animal Breeding | And 3 more authors.
Animal Genetics | Year: 2012

Supernumerary teats (hyperthelia, SNTs) are a common abnormality of the bovine udder with a medium to high heritability and a postulated oligogenic or polygenic inheritance pattern. SNTs not only negatively affect machine milking ability but also act as a reservoir for bacteria. A genome-wide association study was carried out to identify genes involved in the development of SNTs in the dual-purpose Fleckvieh breed. A total of 2467 progeny-tested bulls were genotyped at 43 698 single nucleotide polymorphisms, and daughter yield deviations (DYDs) for 'udder clearness' (UC) were used as high-heritability phenotypes. Massive structuring of the study population was accounted for by principal components analysis-based and mixed model-based approaches. Four loci on BTA5, BTA6, BTA11 and BTA17 were significantly associated with the UC DYD. Three associated regions contain genes of the highly conserved Wnt signalling pathway. The four QTL together account for 10.7% of the variance of the UC DYD, whereas the major fraction of the DYD variance is attributable to chromosomes with no identified QTL. Our results support both an oligogenic and a polygenic inheritance pattern of SNTs in cattle. The identified candidate genes permit insights into the genetic architecture of teat malformations in cattle and provide clues to unravel the molecular mechanisms of mammary gland alterations in cattle and other species. © 2012 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2012 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.


Buitkamp J.,Institute for Animal Breeding | Semmer J.,Institute for Animal Breeding | Gotz K.-U.,Institute for Animal Breeding
BMC Genetics | Year: 2011

Background: Arachnomelia syndrome is an autosomal recessive inherited disease in cattle. Affected calves die around birth and show malformations of the skeleton mainly affecting the legs, the spinal column and the skull. A number of arachnomelia syndrome affected Simmental calves were recently detected by a surveillance system of anomalies with a peak of more than 120 recorded cases in the year 2006. The causative mutation was previously mapped to a 9 cM-region on bovine chromosome 23. We herein report the fine-mapping and identification of the gene causing arachnomelia syndrome in Simmental cattle.Results: By using a dense set of markers, the arachnomelia syndrome linked region could be refined to 1.5 cM harbouring three protein coding genes. Comparative sequencing of these genes revealed a two-bp-deletion in the bovine MOCS1 gene resulting in a frame-shift and a premature termination codon. We genotyped affected calves and their ancestors and found that all affected were homozygous for the deletion whereas all carriers were heterozygous. Furthermore, cattle from the same population, but not directly related to known carriers mostly showed the wild type genotype.Conclusions: MOCS1 encodes two proteins that are involved in the first synthesis step of molybdenum cofactor. A non functional sulfite-oxydase, one of the enzymes requiring molybdenum cofactor, leads to a similar pathology in Brown Swiss cattle. In combination the perfect association of the mutation with the phenotype and the obvious disruption of protein translation provide strong evidence for the causality of the MOCS1 mutation. Our results are the first example for an oligogenic lethal inherited disease in cattle. Furthermore, they show the potential involvement of sulfite metabolism in aberrant bone development. © 2011 Buitkamp et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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