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Braun S.,Institute For Angewandte Pflanzenbiologie Ch | Rihm B.,Meteotest CH
Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Forstwesen | Year: 2012

Ozone (O3) is highly phytotoxic. Basing on dose-effect relationships resulting from fumigation experiments, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) has set critical levels for protection of the vegetation. The present article compares the AOT40 (accumulated ozone over a threshold of 40 ppb) summing up hourly ozone concentrations with a flux-based risk assessment taking into account stomatal ozone uptake. Both ozone quantifications were calculated for rural monitoring stations in Switzerland, mapped and compared to the corresponding critical levels.The data suggest that the ozone load in Switzerland is high enough to provoke clear reductions in forest growth. Source


Braun S.,Institute For Angewandte Pflanzenbiologie Ch | Fluckiger W.,Institute For Angewandte Pflanzenbiologie Ch
Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Forstwesen | Year: 2012

Soil acidification is followed in Swiss forest observation plots differing in soil chemistry. Soil solution samples from suction cups show clearly increasing soil acidification between 1998 and 2011, although the rate has declined in many cases during the last five years. The most rapid decline is currently observed in plots with medium to high base saturation. Nitrogen addition experiments and time series after thinning out forests confirm the important role of nitrogen input and nitrate leaching for the acidification process. It is suggested that the slowdown of acidification since 2003 has several reasons: reaching of the aluminium buffer range in the very acidic plots, decreased nitrate leaching in a series of dry years, reduction of acid deposition. Source


Braun S.,Institute For Angewandte Pflanzenbiologie Ch | Rihm B.,Meteotest CH | Fluckiger W.,Institute For Angewandte Pflanzenbiologie Ch
Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Forstwesen | Year: 2012

Because of their rough surface forests are an efficient sink for nitrogen compounds emitted by industry, traffic and agriculture. Deposition maps reveal that nitrogen deposition in Swiss forests exceed 30 kg N/(ha × yr) in various regions, which is clearly higher than the critical loads set by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The calculated deposition data base on emission inventories, dispersion models, measurements of various deposition components (gaseous, aerosols, wet) as well as on balance calculations. The evaluation of the effects on forests bases on two summary reports: the workshop report of a UNECE meeting on critical loads for nitrogen held in 2010 and a summary of own nitrogen addition experiments published in 2011. The presented data suggest that in Switzerland nitrogen inputs are high enough to cause changes of forest ecosystems. Source

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