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Liu Y.J.,Institute for AIDS STD Control and Prevention
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2012

To study sexual behavioral characteristics, infection status of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STDs) among women who have sex with women (WSW) in Beijing. A total of 150 WSWs were recruited by snowball sampling in several main types of activity sites of WSW (including NGOs, salons, bars, etc.) in Beijing during September 2010 to April 2011. Information on demographic factors, sexual behavioral characteristics, infection status of STDs, and use of medical care were collected by questionnaire investigation. Serum samples, vaginal and cervical swabs were taken for each subject to test HIV, hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), syphilis, herpes simplex virus (HSV), neisseria gonorrhoeae, chlamydia trachoma, bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis and mycotic vaginitis. The age range of the subjects was from 19 to 46 years old. Approximately 82.67% (124/150) of them aged 20 to 29 years old, and 54.00% (81/150) were unmarried. Approximately 76.67% (115/150) had an education level of college degree or above, and 70.67% (106/150) were migrants. Approximately 66.66% (100/150) of the subjects considered themselves as homosexual, 28.00% (42/150) as bisexual. The age at first homosexual sex ranged from 11 to 30 years old. The median of number of female sex partners in last 1 year was 1, and 33.78% (50/148) of the subjects had 2 or more female sex partners. Approximately 20.27% (30/148) of the subjects applied sex instruments, of which 66.67% (20/30) never or seldom used condoms. Hand-clitoris and hand-vagina contacts were the main types of woman-to-woman sex, accounting for 91.22% (135/148). 12.00% (18/150) of the subjects had sex with men during last year. Among them, 50.00% (9/18) used condoms at last heterosexual sex, and 66.67% (12/18) never or seldom used condoms at last heterosexual sex in past 1 year. One subject provided paid sex service for men, and used condoms every time. In the past one year, 45.33% (68/150) of the subjects had symptoms of STDs, but only 36.76% (25/68) of them sought medical care. The infection rate of STDs was 34.67% (52/150). The infection rates of NG and GV were both 16.11% (24/149), and those of mycotic vaginitis, chlamydia trachoma, and TV were 8.72% (13/149), 4.03% (6/149), and 0.67% (1/150), respectively. The numbers of subjects tested positive for HBV, HCV, and syphilis were all 1. No subjects were found HIV positive or HSV-2 positive. Multiple sexual partners and heterosexual sex behavior were common among WSW in Beijing. More than 1/3 of the subjects were infected with STD.


Wang X.,National Center for Control and Prevention | Norris J.L.,National Center for Control and Prevention | Liu Y.,Institute for AIDS STD Control and Prevention | Reilly K.H.,National Center for Control and Prevention | Wang Dr. N.,National Center for Control and Prevention
Chinese Medical Journal | Year: 2012

Background Previous studies have shown evidence of health-related risk behaviors among women who have sex with women (WSW), such as sex with men, multiple bisexual partners, and drug use. Women who have sex with women have also been known to avoid routine physical examinations and conceal their same-sex history from physicians, which can affect their ability to receive an accurate diagnosis and treatment. No previous research has targeted women who have sex with women in China. We sought to describe women who have sex with women in China and explore risk factors for their reproductive tract infections (RTI)/sexually transmitted infections (STI). Methods Participants were recruited through outreach in venues and online for a cross-sectional study. Data were collected using interviews and laboratory tests. Results We recruited 224 women who have sex with women. In the year preceding their participation in the study, 92% (206/224) of women reported sexual relations with women. The RTI rates were: gonorrhea (15.8%), chlamydia (3.5%), syphilis (0.5%), bacterial vaginosis (14.4%), hepatitis B virus (HBV) (0.9%), hepatitis C virus (HCV) (0.5%), and candidiasis (6.9%). No HIV or herpes simplex virus (HSV) positive cases were detected. Factors associated with gonorrhea infection were non-Beijing local residency (odds ratio (OR)=2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-3.8) and genital-genital contact (OR=3.1, 95% CI: 1.3-7.2); factors associated with curable STI (excluding bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, HBV and HCV) were non-Beijing local residency (OR=1.9; 95% CI: 1.2-3.0) and bleeding during or after sex (OR=18.1; 95% CI: 5.2-62.6); and the factor associated with RTI (including all the infections tested) was bleeding during or after sex (OR=37.8, 95% CI: 11.2-127.4). Conclusions Behaviors that may cause RTI/STI exist among Chinese women who have sex with women. Researchers should consider these behaviors when planning corresponding prevention and interventions.


Liu Y.J.,Institute for AIDS STD Control and Prevention
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2011

To analyze sexual behavior characteristics and sexually transmitted diseases such as AIDS infections in man who have sex with men (MSM) of Beijing Chaoyang district. Through selecting 10 MSM as seed in Chaoyang district of the existing education member companion in its main activity place, using snowball sampling to select 1008 people that 16 years old or above, nearly a year had sex with male in Chaoyang to conduct an investigation.Questionnaires were used to investigate the general conditions, characteristics of sexual behaviors, condom usage, AIDS knowledge awareness and sexually transmitted diseases history. Each participant was asked to exsanguinated 5 ml peripheral blood for applying ELISA for HIV, syphilis helicoids detection and HIV positive samples confirm test. Using χ(2) test on the statistical analysis of the data. In the 1008 MSM, most of them were with the age of 20 - 29 years old (66.6%, 671/1008), giving priority to unmarried (79.1%, 797/1008), college degree and above culture during accounted for 43.3% (436/1008), 56.2% (566/1008) had both male and female sexual partners; the rate of temporary sexual partners who were one-night stand objects or friends or guest was 72.2% (226/313). The forever condom utilization rate was 29.0% (170/587) in MSM who had both male and female sexual partners, lower than that who had both male and female sexual partners (47.2%, 345/731). That the study objects of HIV infection who can use condom correctly rate was 3.6% (16/442), and that who never or occasionally used condom rate was 8.5% (24/228). AIDS, gonorrhea and other sexually transmitted diseases (to give priority to the acuteness wet wart) infection rates were 4.8% (6/124), 10.5% (13/124) and 8.9% (11/124) in those who had the history of group sex, and that was 5.9% (52/884), 1.9% (17/884) and 2.3% (20/884) in those who without the history of group sex. The research object's gonorrhea and other sexually transmitted diseases (to give priority to the acuteness wet wart) who provided commercial sex service infection rates were 7.7% (9/117) and 6.8% (8/117), significantly higher than those who did not provide a commercial sex service object of study subject (2.4% (21/891)and 2.6% (23/891)). HIV infection is high among MSM population. Types and identification of sexual partners, and condom use are associated with HIV and STD infection.


Wang X.,National Center for Control and Prevention | Norris J.L.,National Center for Control and Prevention | Liu Y.,Institute for AIDS STD Control and Prevention | Vermund S.H.,Vanderbilt University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Objectives: To assess risk behaviors for reproductive tract infections (RTI) including sexually transmitted infections (STI) among women who have sex with women (WSW) in Beijing, China. Methods: A cross-sectional study of women recruited from venues and internet outreach analyzed using interviews. Results: We recruited 224 WSW, among whom were 37 couples. The average age of participants was 25.6 years. Sex with men in the past year was reported by 10.7% of participants. During the past year, 34.3% (77/224) had had >1 sexual partner and 72.4% (162/224) had ever had >1 sexual partner. Condom use in the last sex with a man was reported by 54.2% (13/24) of women; 12.5% (3/24) reported never having used a condom with a man in the past year. In the past year, 13.4% (30/224) reported using sex toys with their female partners; of these, 43.3% (13/30) reported consistent condom use with the sex toys and 36.7% (11/30) had shared sex toys. Among participants 65.2% (120/184) reported that their "G-spot" had been stimulated during sex, 49.2% (59/120) of whom reported bleeding during or after sex. Only 12.5% (8/64) of those never reporting "G spot" stimulation reported bleeding during or after sex (P<0.001). Conclusions: WSW in Beijing engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors that may carry a substantial risk of being infected with STI/RTI. To implement STI/RTI prevention and intervention among women, women-women sexual behavior should be considered when doing research and intervention programs. © 2012 Wang et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Kang D.,Institution for AIDS STD Control and Prevention | Tao X.,Institution for AIDS STD Control and Prevention | Liao M.,Institution for AIDS STD Control and Prevention | Li J.,Institute for AIDS STD Control and Prevention | And 7 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2013

Background: We assessed the effectiveness of an integrated individual, community, and structural intervention to reduce risks of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs). Methods. The integration individual, community, and structural intervention was implemented from 2004 to 2009 in six counties of Shandong Province. Post-intervention cross-sectional surveys were conducted in six intervention counties and 10 control counties. Results: Of 3326 female sex workers were recruited and analyzed in the post-intervention survey with 1157 from intervention sites and 2169 from control sites. No HIV positive was found in both intervention and control counties. The rate of syphilis was 0.17% for intervention sites and 1.89% for control sites (OR = 11.1, 95% CI: 2.7, 46.1). After adjusted for age, marital status, education, economic condition, recruitment venues, the rates of condom use in the last sex with clients(AOR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.9, 3.8), with regular sex partners(AOR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9) and consistent condom use in the last month with clients (AOR = 3.3; 95% CI: 2.6, 4.1) and regular sex partners (AOR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3, 2.3) were significantly higher in intervention sites than that in control sites. The proportion of participants correctly answered at least six out of eight HIV-related questions (83.3%) in intervention sites is significant higher than that (21.9%) in control sites (AOR = 24.7; 95% CI: 2.5, 42.7), the five indicators related to HIV-related intervention services ever received in the last year including HIV testing(AOR = 4.9; 95% CI: 2.8, 6.7), STD examination and/or treatment(AOR = 5.1; 95% CI: 4.2, 6.4), free condom(AOR = 20.3; 95% CI: 14.3, 28.9), peer education(AOR = 4.3; 95% CI: 3.5, 5.4), education materials(AOR = 19.8; 95%CI: 13.1, 29.8) were significantly higher in intervention sites than that in control sites, the participants in the intervention sites are more likely to seek medical treatment when they had any disorders (AOR = 3.2; 95% CI: 2.5, 4.2). Conclusion: This study found that the integrated individual, community, and structural intervention showed positive impact in reducing HIV and STI risks among FSWs. © 2013 Kang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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