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Kim M.Y.,Institute for Agriculture and Life science | Shin J.H.,Institute for Agriculture and Life science | Kang Y.J.,Institute for Agriculture and Life science | Shim S.R.,Institute for Agriculture and Life science | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biosciences | Year: 2012

Soybean genome sequences were blasted with Arabidopsis thaliana regulatory genes involved in photoperiod-dependent flowering. This approach enabled the identification of 118 genes involved in the flowering pathway. Two genome sequences of cultivated (Williams 82) and wild (IT182932) soybeans were employed to survey functional DNA variations in the flowering-related homologs. Forty genes exhibiting nonsynonymous substitutions between G. max and G. soja were catalogued. In addition, 22 genes were found to co-localize with QTLs for six traits including flowering time, first flower, pod maturity, beginning of pod, reproductive period, and seed filling period. Among the genes overlapping the QTL regions, two LHY/CCA1 genes, GI and SFR6 contained amino acid changes. The recently duplicated sequence regions of the soybean genome were used as additional criteria for the speculation of the putative function of the homologs. Two duplicated regions showed redundancy of both flowering-related genes and QTLs. ID 12398025, which contains the homeologous regions between chr 7 and chr 16, was redundant for the LHY/CCA1 and SPA1 homologs and the QTLs. Retaining of the CRY1 gene and the pod maturity QTLs were observed in the duplicated region of ID 23546507 on chr 4 and chr 6. Functional DNA variation of the LHY/CCA1 gene (Glyma07g05410) was present in a counterpart of the duplicated region on chr 7, while the gene (Glyma16g01980) present in the other portion of the duplicated region on chr 16 did not show a functional sequence change. The gene list catalogued in this study provides primary insight for understanding the regulation of flowering time and maturity in soybean. © Indian Academy of Sciences. Source


Kim J.-E.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Kim Y.-K.,Institute for Agriculture and Life science | Cho C.-S.,Institute for Agriculture and Life science | Jiang H.-L.,Seoul National University | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2012

Background: Polyethylenimine (PEI)-based nonviral gene-delivery systems are commonly employed because of their high transfection efficiency. However, the toxic nature of PEI is a significant obstacle in clinical gene therapy. In this study, we developed biocompatible glycerol triacrylate-spermine (GT-SPE) polyspermine as a nanosized gene carrier for potential lung cancer gene therapy. Methods: The GT-SPE was synthesized using the Michael addition reaction between GT and SPE. The molecular weight was characterized using gel permeability chromatography multiangle laser light scattering and the composition of the polymer was analyzed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Results: The GT-SPE successfully protected the DNA from nucleases. The average particle size of the GT-SPE was 121 nm with a zeta potential of +23.45 mV. The GT-SPE was found to be less toxic than PEI for various cell lines, as well as for a murine model. Finally, our results showed that the GT-SPE/small hairpin Akt1 (shAkt1) complex suppressed lung tumorigenesis in a K-rasLA1 lung cancer mice model by inducing apoptosis through the Akt signaling pathway and cell cycle arrest. Aerosol delivered GT-SPE/shAkt1, which reduced matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and suppressed the expression levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, as well as vascular endothelial growth factors and CD31, which are known proliferation and angiogenesis markers, respectively. © 2012 Hong et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd. Source

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