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Oenema O.,Wageningen University | Ju X.,China Agricultural University | de Klein C.,Agresearch Ltd. | Alfaro M.,Institute for Agricultural Research | And 8 more authors.
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability | Year: 2014

The global food system is a main source of nitrous oxide (N2O), estimated at 4.1-4.4TgN2O-N for 2010. Here, we review this source and assess its mitigation potential. Five mitigation strategies were explored and compared to a 'business as usual' (BAU) scenario: firstly, improved crop production; secondly, improved animal production; thirdly, improved manure management; fourthly improved food utilization; and finally, less animal-derived protein in diets. In the BAU scenario, emissions increased to 6.4Tg for 2030 and 7.5Tg for 2050. Emission reduction strategies could potentially reduce emissions to 4.1Tg in 2030 and to 3.3Tg in 2050, but there is considerable uncertainty in these estimates. In conclusion, packages of coherent strategies may offset the projected increases in N2O emissions from the global food system. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Oenema O.,Wageningen University | De Klein C.,Agresearch Ltd. | Alfaro M.,Institute for Agricultural Research
Crop and Pasture Science | Year: 2014

The increasing demand for safe and nutritional dairy and beef products in a globalising world, together with the needs to increase resource use efficiency and to protect biodiversity, provide strong incentives for intensification of grassland and forage use. This paper addresses the question: 'Does intensification of grassland and forage use lead to efficient, profitable and sustainable ecosystems?' We present some notions about intensification of agricultural production, and then discuss the intensification of grassland-based dairy production in The Netherlands, Chile and New Zealand. Finally, we arrive at some conclusions. External driving forces and the need to economise (the law of the optimum) provide strong incentives for intensification, that is, for increasing the output per unit surface area and labour. The three country cases illustrate that intensification of grassland use is a global phenomenon, with winners and losers. Winners are farmers who are able to achieve a high return on investments. Losers are small farmers who drop out of the business unless they broaden their income base. The relationship between intensification and environmental impact is complex. Within certain ranges, intensification leads to increased emissions of nutrients and greenhouse gases to air and use of water per unit surface area, but to decreased emissions when expressed per unit of product. The sustainability of a grassland-based ecosystem is ultimately defined by the societal appreciation of that system and by biophysical and socioeconomic constraints. In conclusion, intensification may lead to more efficient and profitable and, thereby, more sustainable grassland ecosystems. This holds especially for those systems that are currently not sustainable because they are either underutilised and of low productivity or over-exploited and unregulated, and as long as the adapted systems meet societal and ecological constraints. © CSIRO 2014.

Bello L.Y.,Minna Federal University Of Technology | Chindo P.S.,Institute for Agricultural Research | Oyewale R.O.,Minna Federal University Of Technology | Mamud A.Y.,Minna Federal University Of Technology | Oluwatosin O.,Minna Federal University Of Technology
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2014

Essentially, the most effective control of plant parasitic nematodes involves the use of synthetic nematicide. However, apart from their very high cost, increased concern on the environment has necessitated a reduction in the amount of nematicides used for nematode control. In view of these, this research work was conducted to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of root extract of Tamarindus indica and Carica papaya at different concentrations S (100% concentration), "S/2" (50% concentration), "S/10" (10% concentration) and "S/100"(1% concentration) in the inhibition of egg hatch and mortality of larva of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita.The experiment was laid out in a completely randomised design and replicated four times. Combination of equal proportion of T. indica and C.papaya root extract indicated that all the concentrations inhibited egg hatch. The standard solution S of all the selected botanicals were more toxic and effective at (p ≤ 0.05) than the other concentrations. Similarly, combinations of root extracts of T. indica and C. papaya were the most effective of all the selected botanicals in the inhibition of egg hatch and larvae mortality, followed by T. indica root extracts and then C. papaya root extracts. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Oyinlola E.Y.,Institute for Agricultural Research | Jinadu S.A.,Institute for Agricultural Research
Asian Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2012

Sand, loam and clay are three main textural classes of soil. However, they differ in their nutrient and water holding capacities. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effect of five rates of N fertilizer (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 kg N ha -1) grown in 3 different textural classes (sand, loam and clay) of soil on growth, yield and nutrient composition of tomato. Effects of N on all the parameters determined were significant (p≤0.05) except plant height at 2 and 4 Weeks after Planting (WAP). The highest plant height at harvest (12 WAP), mean fruit weight, fruit yield and dry matter yield were obtained at 90 kg N ha -1. Tissue nutrient (NPK) concentrations increased as the rate of N increased. Loam soil produced the highest value of all the parameters determined except tissue N concentration. Tomato growth and yield were significantly influenced by soil texture and N applications; loam soil at 90 kg N ha -1 proved superior to other treatments, in this study. © 2012 Knowledgia Review, Malaysia.

PubMed | Institute for Agricultural Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik | Year: 2013

The most significant and important interactions in 2, and 3-year sorghum zonal trials were location x year, cultivar x location and cultivar x location x year. Cultivar x year interaction was significant in one out of four ecologic zones used in the trials. The variance components were relatively small with the second order interaction variance component larger than the first order types involving cultivars. Environmental variance was the largest in all four zones.Computations on theoretical standard error of cultivar means suggest that six replications, eight locations and four years is an ideal testing procedure in the Northern Guinea Savanna, while in the Sudan Savanna, the combination is better with four replications, eight locations and three years. The true value or performance of a variety is most effectively obtained by increasing the number of years, while increasing number of replications is the least effective.

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