Institute for Agricultural Research

Zaria, Nigeria

Institute for Agricultural Research

Zaria, Nigeria

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News Article | June 9, 2017
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

The nematode worms that cause the world's most devastating crop losses have given up on sexual reproduction and instead rely on their large, duplicated genomes to thrive in new environments. A group led by Etienne G. J. Danchin of the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA) report these findings in a new study published June 8, 2017 in PLOS Genetics. While most animals -- more than 99 percent -- find that a sexual lifestyle is the best path for evolutionary success, certain root-knot nematode species can only reproduce without sex. Instead of hitting an evolutionary dead-end, these plant pests have a wider geographic range and can infect greater numbers of crops than sexual species. To investigate the reasons behind their success, researchers sequenced and assembled the genomes of the three most damaging root-knot nematodes and compared them to a sexual relative. The asexual genomes are large, with numerous duplicated regions resulting from past reproduction events where at least two individual genomes recently hybridized together. Further analysis showed that many of the gene copies had each evolved different sequences and functions. Besides these gene copies, the genomes of the asexual nematodes are rich in transposable elements, DNA segments that are able to move and multiply in genomes. These elements could provide genomic plasticity and have functional consequences too. The researchers suspect that the asexual nematodes' unusual hybrid genome structure has helped them to successfully adapt to a wide range of environments, even in the absence of sex. These findings challenge the prevailing idea that sexual species will always outcompete their asexual relatives and may even have wider implications for our understanding of why sex evolved. The work also supports the existing idea that hybridization is an evolutionary phenomenon capable of giving rise to new parasites and infectious organisms. For plant breeders, a greater understanding of these economically significant parasites can potentially help in the breeding of better plant varieties that can resist nematode attacks and reduce crop losses. Etienne G. J. Danchin adds: "For a long time, the root-knot nematodes have remained an evolutionary puzzle because the most devastating agricultural parasites are those that have abandoned sex and meiosis. Being unable to combine beneficial mutations from different individuals and unable to purge progressive accumulation of deleterious mutations, they are expected to represent evolutionary dead ends. By analyzing and comparing their genomes, we provide large-scale evidence that these asexual nematodes underwent hybridization and are polyploid. Their duplicated hybrid genome architectures provide these nematodes with multi-copy genes showing diverged sequence and expression patterns where their sexual relatives have very closely related alleles. We suspect these multiple copies provide a reservoir to adapt to different environments and plant hosts, and constitute an evolutionary advantage over their sexual relatives (at least in the short term). Their intriguing parasitic success despite absence of sex could thus be due to their hybrid origin where they combined multiple genomes of adapted parasitic nematodes in one single species. It is now important to understand how these hybrids have emerged and whether the same conditions could favor emergence of even more aggressive and devastating new hybrids."


News Article | June 16, 2017
Site: www.gizmag.com

The swollen tell-tale signs of a tomato plant infected with the Southern root-knot nematode, an asexual parasitic worm that is the bane of farmers (Credit: Diana Fernandez / IRD-UM2-Cirad) Is sex overrated? It depends on who you ask. In the case of the asexual root-knot nematode, the answer would probably be "yes". Unlike animals such as the American cockroach and leopard shark, which are able to produce offspring asexually when the need arises, these parasitic worms have no choice in the matter – they can only reproduce without sex. While this might not sound like a life worth living, nature has given them an edge by turning them into efficient crop-killing machines that outperform their sexually reproducing cousins. Ranked among the top five major plant pathogens in the world, root-knot nematodes are microscopic roundworms that infect the roots of more than 2,000 fruit, vegetable and ornamental crops, such as lettuce, tomatoes, strawberries and carnations, across the world. When they infiltrate a plant, they release an enzyme that causes the surrounding tissues to swell into giant cells, draining the plant's strength and leading to symptoms such as stunted growth and wilting. The female worms then gorge on these cells till they become swollen pear-shaped balloons before depositing their eggs in a gelatinous mass, which can contain up to 1,000 eggs. In regions such as South and Central America, they've been known to destroy entire coffee plantations, driving farmers to shift to other crops, such as sugar cane. There are 98 species of root-knot nematodes (genus Meloidogyne) and while not all of them reproduce asexually, the most destructive ones are those that do, a development that has long puzzled biologists since these asexual worms should be on their way out the evolutionary trapdoor according to conventional wisdom about sexual reproduction. "For a long time, the root-knot nematodes have remained an evolutionary puzzle because the most devastating agricultural parasites are those that have abandoned sex and meiosis," explains scientist Etienne Danchin of the French National Institute for Agricultural Research. "Being unable to combine beneficial mutations from different individuals and unable to purge progressive accumulation of deleterious mutations, they are expected to represent evolutionary dead ends." Unfortunately for farmers, these asexual nematodes have proven to be a devastating exception. Not only do they cause more damage than their sexual relatives, they also infect more plants and have a greater geographical footprint. According to a study published by Danchin and his colleagues, the reason for their success is apparently hardwired in their genes. The researchers studied the genomes of the three most damaging root-knot nematodes – M. incognita (Southern root-knot nematode); M. javanica (Sugarcane eelworm) and M. arenaria (Peanut root-knot nematode) – and compared them to a sexual relative. According to the study, these asexual worms are likely the recent result of a series of interspecific hybridization encounters between a closely related maternal lineage and different male donors (the exact parental genealogy remains a mystery). Just like the unisexual Ambystoma salamander, these asexual worms are polyploid, meaning that unlike us they have more than two sets of chromosomes, a trait that allows them to maintain a rich genetic diversity. As the authors note, "the presence of duplicated and diverged genomic regions probably promotes functional novelty between resulting gene copies, following positive selection." Another interesting feature in their genomes is the abundance of transposable elements, "jumping genes" that can move to different parts of the genome to cause mutations or supply new elements to protein-coding genes. The researchers suspect that these transposons could be playing a role in helping them adapt to new environments and outperform their sexual cousins. And since it takes only the female to reproduce, this could also explain why these asexual parasitic nematodes have been able to infect more hosts on a wider geographical scale. "Their duplicated hybrid genome architectures provide these nematodes with multi-copy genes showing diverged sequence and expression patterns where their sexual relatives have very closely related alleles," says Danchin. "We suspect these multiple copies provide a reservoir to adapt to different environments and plant hosts, and constitute an evolutionary advantage over their sexual relatives (at least in the short term). Their intriguing parasitic success despite absence of sex could thus be due to their hybrid origin where they combined multiple genomes of adapted parasitic nematodes in one single species." That said, there is much about these tiny parasitic worms that remains unknown and understanding the conditions leading to their development could help scientists breed resistant plant varieties as well as guard against the emergence of even more aggressive and devastating new hybrids, conclude the researchers. The study was published in PLOS.


News Article | June 9, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

The nematode worms that cause the world's most devastating crop losses have given up on sexual reproduction and instead rely on their large, duplicated genomes to thrive in new environments. A group led by Etienne G. J. Danchin of the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA) report these findings in a new study published June 8, 2017 in PLOS Genetics. While most animals - more than 99 percent - find that a sexual lifestyle is the best path for evolutionary success, certain root-knot nematode species can only reproduce without sex. Instead of hitting an evolutionary dead-end, these plant pests have a wider geographic range and can infect greater numbers of crops than sexual species. To investigate the reasons behind their success, researchers sequenced and assembled the genomes of the three most damaging root-knot nematodes and compared them to a sexual relative. The asexual genomes are large, with numerous duplicated regions resulting from past reproduction events where at least two individual genomes recently hybridized together. Further analysis showed that many of the gene copies had each evolved different sequences and functions. Besides these gene copies, the genomes of the asexual nematodes are rich in transposable elements, DNA segments that are able to move and multiply in genomes. These elements could provide genomic plasticity and have functional consequences too. The researchers suspect that the asexual nematodes' unusual hybrid genome structure has helped them to successfully adapt to a wide range of environments, even in the absence of sex. These findings challenge the prevailing idea that sexual species will always outcompete their asexual relatives and may even have wider implications for our understanding of why sex evolved. The work also supports the existing idea that hybridization is an evolutionary phenomenon capable of giving rise to new parasites and infectious organisms. For plant breeders, a greater understanding of these economically significant parasites can potentially help in the breeding of better plant varieties that can resist nematode attacks and reduce crop losses. Etienne G. J. Danchin adds: "For a long time, the root-knot nematodes have remained an evolutionary puzzle because the most devastating agricultural parasites are those that have abandoned sex and meiosis. Being unable to combine beneficial mutations from different individuals and unable to purge progressive accumulation of deleterious mutations, they are expected to represent evolutionary dead ends. By analyzing and comparing their genomes, we provide large-scale evidence that these asexual nematodes underwent hybridization and are polyploid. Their duplicated hybrid genome architectures provide these nematodes with multi-copy genes showing diverged sequence and expression patterns where their sexual relatives have very closely related alleles. We suspect these multiple copies provide a reservoir to adapt to different environments and plant hosts, and constitute an evolutionary advantage over their sexual relatives (at least in the short term). Their intriguing parasitic success despite absence of sex could thus be due to their hybrid origin where they combined multiple genomes of adapted parasitic nematodes in one single species. It is now important to understand how these hybrids have emerged and whether the same conditions could favor emergence of even more aggressive and devastating new hybrids." In your coverage please use this URL to provide access to the freely available article in PLOS Genetics: http://journals. Citation: Blanc-Mathieu R, Perfus-Barbeoch L, Aury J-M, Da Rocha M, Gouzy J, Sallet E, et al. (2017) Hybridization and polyploidy enable genomic plasticity without sex in the most devastating plant-parasitic nematodes. PLoS Genet 13(6): e1006777. https:/ Funding: This work was supported by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche program ANR-13-JSV7-0006 - ASEXEVOL, the INRA program AAP SPE 2011, as well as Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis Postdoc program 2013-2014. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


Receive press releases from America's Registry of Outstanding Professionals: By Email America’s Registry of Outstanding Professionals honors Legacy and Roundtable member Dr. Alan P. Roelfs for his outstanding accomplishments in Agriculture. Alan P. Roelfs is retired from the USDA-ARS Cereal Rust Laboratory, after 32 years with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, as well as 23 years in the Department of Plant Pathology at the University of Minnesota. Dr. Roelfs earned a B.S. in Technical Agronomy and an M.S. in Plant Pathology from Kansas State University, and a Ph.D. in Plant Pathology from the University of Minnesota. While a graduate student at Kansas State, he also worked as a research technician for the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service in the Cereal Rust Laboratory at the University of Minnesota. At the same time, he enrolled as a Ph.D. student in the Plant Pathology Department. In 1970, after receiving his Ph.D., he was promoted to USDA-ARS Research Plant Pathologist at the Cereal Rust Laboratory and became an adjunct faculty member of the Department of Plant Pathology. He continued there from 1970 to 1993, and in 1981 served as Acting Director. Dr. Roelfs also taught and did committee work, as well as a host of other activities in the Department of Plant Pathology. Understanding cereal rust diseases, particularly wheat stem rust and wheat leaf rust, has driven his career. His experience in rust surveys was the bedrock for his important contributions to epidemiology of rust diseases, as well as to understanding complex interactions between varieties of small grains and pathogenic races of rust fungi. His research with his colleagues led to extensive advances in the study of population genetics of plant pathogens. Dr. Roelfs has published more than 100 papers in journals, book chapters, and other publications. He co-edited, with Bill Bushnell, the two-volume exposition on The Cereal Rusts a comprehensive treatment of all aspects of host-parasite interactions and biology of cereal rust fungi. In recognition of his distinguished research contribution, Dr. Roelfs was honored as a Fellow of the American Phytopathological Society. Dr. Roelfs is recognized as one of the world’s major leaders in cereal rust research. He was the foliar disease expert on the National Academy of Science delegation to China for wheat studies in 1976. He has been twice invited to serve as a consultant for epidemiology of cereal rust with the Intra-American Institute for Agricultural Research in Brazil, and he was an FAO consultant on wheat diseases in Pakistan. He has served as an advisor for cereal disease research in India, Mexico, and Morocco. Dr. Roelfs’ presence at the Cereal Rust Lab served as an incentive for visiting scientists from around the world. Since retirement, he maintains several active research interests including studies in biology and evolutionary relationships of rusts in the Puccinia recondita (leaf rust) species complex. He is also pursuing studies of the rusts of native North American prairie grasses. Around the world, Dr. Roelfs’ frequently consults on all aspects of cereal rust research including epidemiology, cereal rust surveys, and techniques. About America’s Registry of Outstanding Professionals America's Registry is a membership organization that gives its members the type of national recognition they strive for. Professional business people may join memberships, societies and organizations to develop business contacts, thus gaining image and credibility for themselves and their organization. As a powerful third party endorsement, America's Registry offers this kind of recognition for individuals on a national basis with the added benefit of instantaneous networking with the other members. Members are encouraged to welcome, network and assist each other whether they are in the same or an entirely different industry or profession. Being in America's Registry can be viewed by the members as a letter of introduction to all the other members. Grantsburg, WI, June 27, 2017 --( PR.com )-- About Alan P. RoelfsAlan P. Roelfs is retired from the USDA-ARS Cereal Rust Laboratory, after 32 years with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, as well as 23 years in the Department of Plant Pathology at the University of Minnesota.Dr. Roelfs earned a B.S. in Technical Agronomy and an M.S. in Plant Pathology from Kansas State University, and a Ph.D. in Plant Pathology from the University of Minnesota. While a graduate student at Kansas State, he also worked as a research technician for the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service in the Cereal Rust Laboratory at the University of Minnesota. At the same time, he enrolled as a Ph.D. student in the Plant Pathology Department. In 1970, after receiving his Ph.D., he was promoted to USDA-ARS Research Plant Pathologist at the Cereal Rust Laboratory and became an adjunct faculty member of the Department of Plant Pathology. He continued there from 1970 to 1993, and in 1981 served as Acting Director. Dr. Roelfs also taught and did committee work, as well as a host of other activities in the Department of Plant Pathology.Understanding cereal rust diseases, particularly wheat stem rust and wheat leaf rust, has driven his career. His experience in rust surveys was the bedrock for his important contributions to epidemiology of rust diseases, as well as to understanding complex interactions between varieties of small grains and pathogenic races of rust fungi. His research with his colleagues led to extensive advances in the study of population genetics of plant pathogens. Dr. Roelfs has published more than 100 papers in journals, book chapters, and other publications. He co-edited, with Bill Bushnell, the two-volume exposition on The Cereal Rusts a comprehensive treatment of all aspects of host-parasite interactions and biology of cereal rust fungi. In recognition of his distinguished research contribution, Dr. Roelfs was honored as a Fellow of the American Phytopathological Society.Dr. Roelfs is recognized as one of the world’s major leaders in cereal rust research. He was the foliar disease expert on the National Academy of Science delegation to China for wheat studies in 1976. He has been twice invited to serve as a consultant for epidemiology of cereal rust with the Intra-American Institute for Agricultural Research in Brazil, and he was an FAO consultant on wheat diseases in Pakistan. He has served as an advisor for cereal disease research in India, Mexico, and Morocco. Dr. Roelfs’ presence at the Cereal Rust Lab served as an incentive for visiting scientists from around the world.Since retirement, he maintains several active research interests including studies in biology and evolutionary relationships of rusts in the Puccinia recondita (leaf rust) species complex.He is also pursuing studies of the rusts of native North American prairie grasses. Around the world, Dr. Roelfs’ frequently consults on all aspects of cereal rust research including epidemiology, cereal rust surveys, and techniques.About America’s Registry of Outstanding ProfessionalsAmerica's Registry is a membership organization that gives its members the type of national recognition they strive for. Professional business people may join memberships, societies and organizations to develop business contacts, thus gaining image and credibility for themselves and their organization. As a powerful third party endorsement, America's Registry offers this kind of recognition for individuals on a national basis with the added benefit of instantaneous networking with the other members. Members are encouraged to welcome, network and assist each other whether they are in the same or an entirely different industry or profession. Being in America's Registry can be viewed by the members as a letter of introduction to all the other members. Click here to view the list of recent Press Releases from America's Registry of Outstanding Professionals


News Article | May 30, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Scientists are seeking to develop chickpeas that can flourish in dry climates, to help some of the world's poorest farmers reliably grow the staple crop. Experts are to use low-cost imaging and computing science techniques to identify how to speed the breeding of chickpea varieties that give high yields in arid conditions. Their research could enable farmers in Africa - where much of the population relies on poor smallholdings for subsistence - to improve chickpea harvests in a changing climate. Researchers hope their findings can significantly improve annual yields from current levels of about 1.5 tonnes per hectare to about 5 tonnes per hectare. Chickpeas grown in Ethiopia depend on monsoon rain for their development, but this has been unreliable in recent years, affecting harvests. Researchers will grow varieties of chickpea plants under a range of conditions in simple transparent frames. Images of the plants' developing root systems - which show how well these reach into deep soil - will be analysed by artificially intelligent computers. An interdisciplinary team of scientists will seek to gain a deeper understanding of how conditions affect chickpea growth. They will develop algorithms to determine how a resilient variety could be bred. This will enable breeders to focus on varieties with improved performance. Experts from the University of Edinburgh will work with Addis Ababa University, the Ethiopian Institute for Agricultural Research and the Ethiopian Biotechnology Institute on the £750,000 project, funded by the Global Challenges Research Fund from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council. The collaboration seeks to build on the University of Edinburgh's expertise in plant root science and machine learning. The team hopes the findings from their 30-month study may also benefit chickpea farmers in the Middle East, India and Pakistan, where climates are becoming hotter and drier. Dr Peter Doerner, of the University of Edinburgh's School of Biological Sciences, who is taking part in the study, said: "Growing this staple food is already a challenge in many poor regions, and is becoming tougher amid climate change. A chickpea that grows well in dry climates could aid many of the world's poorest farmers."


News Article | May 30, 2017
Site: phys.org

Experts are to use low-cost imaging and computing science techniques to identify how to speed the breeding of chickpea varieties that give high yields in arid conditions. Their research could enable farmers in Africa - where much of the population relies on poor smallholdings for subsistence - to improve chickpea harvests in a changing climate. Researchers hope their findings can significantly improve annual yields from current levels of about 1.5 tonnes per hectare to about 5 tonnes per hectare. Chickpeas grown in Ethiopia depend on monsoon rain for their development, but this has been unreliable in recent years, affecting harvests. Researchers will grow varieties of chickpea plants under a range of conditions in simple transparent frames. Images of the plants' developing root systems - which show how well these reach into deep soil - will be analysed by artificially intelligent computers. An interdisciplinary team of scientists will seek to gain a deeper understanding of how conditions affect chickpea growth. They will develop algorithms to determine how a resilient variety could be bred. This will enable breeders to focus on varieties with improved performance. Experts from the University of Edinburgh will work with Addis Ababa University, the Ethiopian Institute for Agricultural Research and the Ethiopian Biotechnology Institute on the £750,000 project, funded by the Global Challenges Research Fund from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council. The collaboration seeks to build on the University of Edinburgh's expertise in plant root science and machine learning. The team hopes the findings from their 30-month study may also benefit chickpea farmers in the Middle East, India and Pakistan, where climates are becoming hotter and drier. Dr Peter Doerner, of the University of Edinburgh's School of Biological Sciences, who is taking part in the study, said: "Growing this staple food is already a challenge in many poor regions, and is becoming tougher amid climate change. A chickpea that grows well in dry climates could aid many of the world's poorest farmers." Explore further: Searching for a better way to breed chickpeas


Oenema O.,Wageningen University | Ju X.,China Agricultural University | de Klein C.,Agresearch Ltd. | Alfaro M.,Institute for Agricultural Research | And 8 more authors.
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability | Year: 2014

The global food system is a main source of nitrous oxide (N2O), estimated at 4.1-4.4TgN2O-N for 2010. Here, we review this source and assess its mitigation potential. Five mitigation strategies were explored and compared to a 'business as usual' (BAU) scenario: firstly, improved crop production; secondly, improved animal production; thirdly, improved manure management; fourthly improved food utilization; and finally, less animal-derived protein in diets. In the BAU scenario, emissions increased to 6.4Tg for 2030 and 7.5Tg for 2050. Emission reduction strategies could potentially reduce emissions to 4.1Tg in 2030 and to 3.3Tg in 2050, but there is considerable uncertainty in these estimates. In conclusion, packages of coherent strategies may offset the projected increases in N2O emissions from the global food system. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Oenema O.,Wageningen University | De Klein C.,Agresearch Ltd. | Alfaro M.,Institute for Agricultural Research
Crop and Pasture Science | Year: 2014

The increasing demand for safe and nutritional dairy and beef products in a globalising world, together with the needs to increase resource use efficiency and to protect biodiversity, provide strong incentives for intensification of grassland and forage use. This paper addresses the question: 'Does intensification of grassland and forage use lead to efficient, profitable and sustainable ecosystems?' We present some notions about intensification of agricultural production, and then discuss the intensification of grassland-based dairy production in The Netherlands, Chile and New Zealand. Finally, we arrive at some conclusions. External driving forces and the need to economise (the law of the optimum) provide strong incentives for intensification, that is, for increasing the output per unit surface area and labour. The three country cases illustrate that intensification of grassland use is a global phenomenon, with winners and losers. Winners are farmers who are able to achieve a high return on investments. Losers are small farmers who drop out of the business unless they broaden their income base. The relationship between intensification and environmental impact is complex. Within certain ranges, intensification leads to increased emissions of nutrients and greenhouse gases to air and use of water per unit surface area, but to decreased emissions when expressed per unit of product. The sustainability of a grassland-based ecosystem is ultimately defined by the societal appreciation of that system and by biophysical and socioeconomic constraints. In conclusion, intensification may lead to more efficient and profitable and, thereby, more sustainable grassland ecosystems. This holds especially for those systems that are currently not sustainable because they are either underutilised and of low productivity or over-exploited and unregulated, and as long as the adapted systems meet societal and ecological constraints. © CSIRO 2014.


Bello L.Y.,Minna Federal University Of Technology | Chindo P.S.,Institute for Agricultural Research | Oyewale R.O.,Minna Federal University Of Technology | Mamud A.Y.,Minna Federal University Of Technology | Oluwatosin O.,Minna Federal University Of Technology
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2014

Essentially, the most effective control of plant parasitic nematodes involves the use of synthetic nematicide. However, apart from their very high cost, increased concern on the environment has necessitated a reduction in the amount of nematicides used for nematode control. In view of these, this research work was conducted to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of root extract of Tamarindus indica and Carica papaya at different concentrations S (100% concentration), "S/2" (50% concentration), "S/10" (10% concentration) and "S/100"(1% concentration) in the inhibition of egg hatch and mortality of larva of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita.The experiment was laid out in a completely randomised design and replicated four times. Combination of equal proportion of T. indica and C.papaya root extract indicated that all the concentrations inhibited egg hatch. The standard solution S of all the selected botanicals were more toxic and effective at (p ≤ 0.05) than the other concentrations. Similarly, combinations of root extracts of T. indica and C. papaya were the most effective of all the selected botanicals in the inhibition of egg hatch and larvae mortality, followed by T. indica root extracts and then C. papaya root extracts. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.


Oyinlola E.Y.,Institute for Agricultural Research | Jinadu S.A.,Institute for Agricultural Research
Asian Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2012

Sand, loam and clay are three main textural classes of soil. However, they differ in their nutrient and water holding capacities. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effect of five rates of N fertilizer (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 kg N ha -1) grown in 3 different textural classes (sand, loam and clay) of soil on growth, yield and nutrient composition of tomato. Effects of N on all the parameters determined were significant (p≤0.05) except plant height at 2 and 4 Weeks after Planting (WAP). The highest plant height at harvest (12 WAP), mean fruit weight, fruit yield and dry matter yield were obtained at 90 kg N ha -1. Tissue nutrient (NPK) concentrations increased as the rate of N increased. Loam soil produced the highest value of all the parameters determined except tissue N concentration. Tomato growth and yield were significantly influenced by soil texture and N applications; loam soil at 90 kg N ha -1 proved superior to other treatments, in this study. © 2012 Knowledgia Review, Malaysia.

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