Institute for Agri Technology and Food innovation

Taastrup, Denmark

Institute for Agri Technology and Food innovation

Taastrup, Denmark
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Petersen M.B.,Institute for Agri Technology and Food Innovation | Soegaard K.,University of Aarhus | Jensen S.K.,University of Aarhus
Livestock Science | Year: 2011

Most work dealing with the impact of species-rich herbage on milk fatty acid content has hitherto been carried out in alpine areas or semi-natural grasslands. The main objective of the present study was to examine the effect of herbs sown and intensively managed in a lowland sward on the concentration of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and vitamins in cows' milk compared to clover grass and total mixed ration (TMR) feeding. Twelve cows were housed in tie-stall and randomly allocated to three diets fed ad libitum for 14. days: HERBS (mixture of fresh herbs); CLOVER (mixture of fresh white clover and ryegrass); or TMR (total mixed ration based on silage and concentrate). n-3 fatty acid (FA) content was similar between the three diets, while n-6 FA content was highest in the TMR diet. A twofold increase in n-3 FA concentration in milk was observed when feeding HERBS compared to CLOVER and TMR (0.8, 0.4 and 0.3. g/kg milk, respectively). n-6 FA concentration increased as well when feeding HERBS (1.4, 0.9 and 1.0. g/kg milk for HERBS, CLOVER and TMR, respectively). Transfer efficiency from feed to milk was doubled for n-3 FA when feeding HERBS and for transfer efficiency of n-6 FA from feed to milk an increase of 28% was observed for HERBS compared to CLOVER. Retinol content was highest in HERBS milk, while there was no difference in α-tocopherol and ß-carotene milk content between the three diets. The results thus support previous findings on the effect of herbs on the milk fatty acid profile, but it will require further research to understand the effect of herbs on n-3 and n-6 FA concentration in milk. In conclusion, milk content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), like n-3 and n-6 FA, was significantly increased when herbs constituted the major part of the herbage, despite lower or similar dietary content of n-3 and n-6 FA in herbs compared to clover grass- and TMR diets. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Janka E.,University of Aarhus | Korner O.,Institute for Agri Technology and Food Innovation | Rosenqvist E.,Copenhagen University | Ottosen C.-O.,University of Aarhus
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Modern highly insulated greenhouses are more energy efficient than conventional types. Furthermore applying dynamic greenhouse climate control regimes will increase energy efficiency relatively more in modern structures. However, this combination may result in higher air and crop temperatures. Too high temperature affects the plant photosynthetic responses, resulting in a lower rate of photosynthesis. To predict and analyse physiological responses as stress indicators, two independent experiments were conducted, to detect the effect of high temperature on photosynthesis: analysing photosystem II (PSII) and stomatal conductance (gs). A combination of chlorophyll a fluorescence, gas exchange measurements and infrared thermography was applied using Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) 'Coral Charm' as a model species. Increasing temperature had a highly significant effect on PSII when the temperature exceeded 38°C for a period of 7 (±1.8) days. High temperature decreased the maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm), the conformation term for primary photochemistry (Fv/Fo) and performance index (PI), as well as increased minimal fluorescence (Fo). However, at elevated CO2 of 1000μmolmol-1 and with a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 800μmolm-2s-1, net photosynthesis (Pn) reached its maximum at 35°C. The thermal index (IG), calculated from the leaf temperature and the temperature of a dry and wet reference leaf, showed a strong correlation with gs. We conclude that 1) chlorophyll a fluorescence and a combination of fluorescence parameters can be used as early stress indicators as well as to detect the temperature limit of PSII damage, and 2) the strong relation between gs and IG enables gs to be estimated non-invasively, which is an important first step in modelling leaf temperature to predict unfavourable growing conditions in a (dynamic) semi closed greenhouse. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Schjonning P.,University of Aarhus | Lamande M.,University of Aarhus | Keller T.,ART Agroscope Reckenholz Tänikon | Keller T.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Soil Use and Management | Year: 2012

Subsoil compaction is persistent and can affect important soil functions including soil productivity. The aim of this study was to develop recommendations on how to avoid subsoil compaction for soils exposed to traffic by machinery at field capacity. We measured the vertical stress in the tyre-soil contact area for two traction tyres at ca. 30- and 60-kN wheel loads on a loamy sand at field capacity. Data on resulting stress distributions were combined with those from the literature for five implement tyres tested at a range of inflation pressures and wheel loads. The vertical stress in the soil profile was then predicted using the Söhne model for all tests in the combined data set. The predicted stress at 20cm depth correlated with the maximum stress in the contact area, tyre inflation pressure, tyre-soil contact area and mean ground pressure. At 100cm depth, the predicted vertical stress was primarily determined by wheel load, but an effect of the other factors was also detected. Based on published recommendations for allowable stresses in the soil profile, we propose the '50-50 rule': At water contents around field capacity, traffic on agricultural soil should not exert vertical stresses in excess of 50kPa at depths >50cm. Our combined data provide the basis for the '8-8 rule': The depth of the 50-kPa stress isobar increases by 8cm for each additional tonne increase in wheel load and by 8cm for each doubling of the tyre inflation pressure. We suggest that farmers use this simple rule for evaluating the sustainability of any planned traffic over moist soil. © 2012 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2012 British Society of Soil Science.


Petersen M.B.,Institute for Agri Technology and Food Innovation | Jensen S.K.,University of Aarhus
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Rumen biohydrogenation (BH) of C18:3n-3 (ALA) and C18:2n-6 (LA) has been shown to be reduced in cows fed species-rich herbage, but plant species offering the best protection against BH are yet to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in rumen in vitro BH of ALA and LA between single plant species and feeding regimens. Rumen fluid was collected from cows fed either total mixed ration (TMR), species-rich silage (HERB), or grass silage (GRASS). Five single species (alfalfa, birdsfoot trefoil, chicory, English plantain, and salad burnet) and a grass-clover mixture (white clover and ryegrass) were incubated in three replicas up to 30 h and subsequently analyzed for fatty acid content. Michaelis-Menten kinetics was applied for quantifying the BH rate. BH proceeded at the lowest rate in alfalfa and salad burnet (P < 0.005), and independent of species BH rate was lower in HERB and GRASS compared to TMR (P < 0.001). © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Dela Cruz M.,Copenhagen University | Christensen J.H.,Copenhagen University | Thomsen J.D.,Institute for Agri Technology and Food innovation | Muller R.,Copenhagen University
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are found in indoor air, and many of these can affect human health (e.g. formaldehyde and benzene are carcinogenic). Plants affect the levels of VOCs in indoor environments, thus they represent a potential green solution for improving indoor air quality that at the same time can improve human health. This article reviews scientific studies of plants’ ability to remove VOCs from indoor air. The focus of the review is on pathways of VOC removal by the plants and factors affecting the efficiency and rate of VOC removal by plants. Laboratory based studies indicate that plant induced removal of VOCs is a combination of direct (e.g. absorption) and indirect (e.g. biotransformation by microorganisms) mechanisms. They also demonstrate that plants’ rate of reducing the level of VOCs is influenced by a number of factors such as plant species, light intensity and VOC concentration. For instance, an increase in light intensity has in some studies been shown to lead to an increase in removal of a pollutant. Studies conducted in real-life settings such as offices and homes are few and show mixed results. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Kuligowska K.,Copenhagen University | Lutken H.,Copenhagen University | Christensen B.,Institute for Agri Technology and Food Innovation | Muller R.,Copenhagen University
Breeding Science | Year: 2016

Rose mallows belong to the Muenchhusia section of the Hibiscus genus. They represent a small group of cold tolerant North American plants and are popular ornamentals mainly because of their abundant, large and colorful flowers. Due to their geographical origin they are well suited for garden use in temperate regions worldwide. The aim of the study was to investigate hybridization barriers in crosses among cultivars of Hibiscus species from the Muenchhusia section: H. coccineus, H. laevis and H. moscheutos. Crossing barriers were identified as both pre- and post-zygotic. The analysis of pollen tube growth revealed inhibition of pollen tubes and their abnormal growth. In specific crosses the fertilization success was low. The pre-fertilization barriers did not cause a complete reproductive isolation between the hybridization partners. In relation to post-fertilization barriers, the occurrence of hybrid incompatibilities such as unviability, chlorosis, necrosis, stunted growth and albinism were the main drawback in production of hybrids. The appearance of symptoms of hybrid incompatibilities was dependent upon specific parental plants. The obtained progeny had intermediate leaf morphology and flower morphology compared to parental plants. Hybridity state was verified by morphological analysis and RAPD markers. Based on the overall plant morphology, 472 hybrid progenies were obtained. © 2016, Japanese Society of Breeding. All rights reserved.


Dresboll D.B.,Copenhagen University | Christensen B.,Institute for Agri Technology and Food Innovation | Thorup-Kristensen K.,Copenhagen University
Advances in Agronomy | Year: 2015

Translational science deals with the dilemma between basic research and the practical application of scientific results. In translational plant science, focus is on the relationship between agricultural crop production and basic science in various research fields, but primarily in the basic plant science. Scientific and technological developments have allowed great progress in our understanding of plant genetics and molecular physiology, with potentials for improving agricultural production. However, this development has led to a separation of the laboratory-based research from the crop production systems and the more applied crop research. The link between basic and applied research is at risk when focus is kept on one level of complexity, not taking higher or lower levels into account. Without this link, the chance that basic research results will be translated into agricultural progress is lessened. In our opinion, implementation of translational plant science is a necessity in order to solve the agricultural challenges of producing food and materials in the future. We suggest an approach to translational plant science forcing scientists to think beyond their own area and to consider higher or lower levels of complexity and possible multidisciplinary collaboration. The approach can be described by four main questions, suggesting considerations of (1) viability of the basic results outside the lab, (2) possible side effects, (3) implementation difficulties, and (4) alternative solutions to the same problems. By theuse of examples where translational plant science has either been successfully or not successfully applied we describe an approach for advancing translational plant science. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Ersboll A.K.,Copenhagen University | Ersboll B.K.,Technical University of Denmark | Houe H.,Copenhagen University | Alban L.,Danish Meat Association | And 2 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2010

According to the current literature BVDV-infected neighbours probably impose a high risk of infection of susceptible cattle herds. In the present study, the objective was to evaluate the risk of a dairy herd changing infection status (from not having persistently infected (PI) animals to having PI-animals) in relation to location and infection status of neighbouring cattle herds in Denmark. In total, 7921 dairy herds were included in the analysis of spatial and non-spatial risk factors. The spatial risk factors were derived based on the cattle herds in the neighbourhood (N= 36,639 cattle herds). The neighbourhood was defined as the first order neighbouring cattle herds using a Delauney triangularization. In total, 13.3% of the dairy herds changed herd status to PI-herds during the study period that lasted from January 1, 1995, to June 30, 1996. The risk of becoming a PI-herd was negatively associated with the mean distance to the neighbouring herds (OR = 0.7 for an increase of 1. km). Presence of PI-herds in the neighbourhood increased the risk of becoming a PI-herd (OR = 1.37, 1.40, 1.70 for 1, 2, ≥3 PI-herds in the neighbourhood). Increasing herd size increased the risk of becoming a PI-herd (OR = 3.9 for an increase of 10 cows). Regional differences were seen. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Rask A.M.,Copenhagen University | Larsen S.U.,Institute for Agri Technology and Food Innovation | Andreasen C.,Copenhagen University | Kristoffersen P.,Copenhagen University
Weed Research | Year: 2013

Many public authorities rely on the use of non-chemical weed control methods, due to stringent restrictions on herbicide use in urban areas. However, these methods usually require more repeated treatments than chemical weed management, resulting in increased costs of weed management. In order to investigate the efficacy of four non-chemical weed control methods and glyphosate treatment, experiments were carried out on traffic islands in the growing seasons 2005 and 2006. Three trial sites were each divided into six treatment areas, which were either treated with glyphosate, flame, steam, hot air/flame, hot water or left untreated. The treatments were carried out at regular, predetermined intervals throughout the growing season in 2004, whereas in 2005 and 2006 how many treatments that were required to keep weed cover below a predetermined acceptance level of 2% were investigated. Percentage weed cover was measured every second week using a 75 cm × 75 cm quadrat divided into 100 squares. On the control areas, a rapid increase in weed cover was observed, whereas weed cover could be kept below 2% by 2-7 treatments per year, depending on control method. On average, the following numbers of treatments per year were required: glyphosate 2.5, hot water 3, flames 5, hot air/flames 5.5 and steam 5.5 treatments. The results demonstrate that the weed control should be adjusted to the prescribed quality for the traffic islands by regularly assessing the need for weed control. They also show that tailored treatments can reduce the number of required non-chemical treatments per year. © 2013 European Weed Research Society.


PubMed | Institute for Agri Technology and Food Innovation and Copenhagen University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Breeding science | Year: 2016

Rose mallows belong to the Muenchhusia section of the Hibiscus genus. They represent a small group of cold tolerant North American plants and are popular ornamentals mainly because of their abundant, large and colorful flowers. Due to their geographical origin they are well suited for garden use in temperate regions worldwide. The aim of the study was to investigate hybridization barriers in crosses among cultivars of Hibiscus species from the Muenchhusia section: H. coccineus, H. laevis and H. moscheutos. Crossing barriers were identified as both pre- and post-zygotic. The analysis of pollen tube growth revealed inhibition of pollen tubes and their abnormal growth. In specific crosses the fertilization success was low. The pre-fertilization barriers did not cause a complete reproductive isolation between the hybridization partners. In relation to post-fertilization barriers, the occurrence of hybrid incompatibilities such as unviability, chlorosis, necrosis, stunted growth and albinism were the main drawback in production of hybrids. The appearance of symptoms of hybrid incompatibilities was dependent upon specific parental plants. The obtained progeny had intermediate leaf morphology and flower morphology compared to parental plants. Hybridity state was verified by morphological analysis and RAPD markers. Based on the overall plant morphology, 472 hybrid progenies were obtained.

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